دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۰

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Off-price retailer  قیمت فروش پایینتر از قیمت خرده فروشی Retailer that buys at less-than-regular wholesale prices and sells at less than retail
Independent off-price retailer Off-price retailer that is either owned and run by entrepreneurs or is division of larger retail corporation
Factory outlet Off-price retailing operation that is owned and operated by a manufacturer and that normally carries the manufacturer’s surplus, discontinued, or irregular goods
Warehouse club Off-price retailer that sells a limited selection of brand name grocery items, appliances, clothing, and a hodgepodge of other goods at deep discounts to members who pay annual membership fees
Chain stores Two or more outlets that are owned and controlled in common, have central buying and merchandising, and sell similar lines of merchandise
Franchise A contractual association between a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service organization (a franchiser) and independent businesspeople (franchisees) who buy the right to own and operate one or more units in the franchise system
Franchisor Suppliers of products and management and marketing expertise that grant franchisees (dealers) the right to run a chain-like retailing establishments in return for fee and royalty arrangements
Franchise organization A contractual vertical marketing system in which a channel member, called a franchiser, links several stages in the production-distribution process
In-home retailing Selling that usually takes the form of a small party given by a hostess or host to allow friends and neighbours to examine and order a product line
District sales manager A line executive who plans, directs, and controls the activities of field salespeople
Central business districts Areas where many retailers are clustered together to také advantage of each other’s traffic
Warehouse showrooms Stores that are located on low-rent, suburban sites, and focus on medium-priced furniture and appliances
Limited-service retailers Some department store chains and limited-line stores that concentrate on heterogeneous shopping products
Wholesaling All activities involved in selling goods and services to those buying for resale or business use
Wholesaler Organisations which buy products from producers or other wholesalers and resell them to retailers or organisational buyers, or to other wholesalers
Limited-service wholesalers Wholesalers who perform only selected functions
Full-service wholesalers Organisations which provide almost all the functions of intermediaries and generally are divided into three subgroups: general merchandise wholesalers, single-line wholesalers, and specialty wholesalers
General merchandise wholesalers Wholesaler who handle a broad range of products, from food and drug items to plumbing supplies and automotive accessories
Merchant wholesaler Independently owned business that takes title to the merchandise it handles
Sorting out The process by which wholesalers and retailers separate quantities of products into sizes, colours, quality grades, and so on
Cash-and-carry wholesalers Wholesalers who emphasise reduced costs for small retailers, but do not provide credit or delivery
Specialty wholesalers Wholesalers who have the most restricted inventories, focusing on items such as health foods or electric motors
Truck wholesalers Wholesalers who pick up quantities of products at commercial markets and deliver them to retailers in case lots
Drop shippers Organisations which take bulk orders from industrial users, other wholesalers, or retailers; they then order the desired products from manufacturers, who ship directly to the customers
Non-store retailing Retailing that may be conducted impersonally (through catalogues, direct mail, and vending machines) or personally (door-to-door selling, in-home retailing, and telephone sales)
Door-to-door selling A form of direct marketing which involves personal selling to individuals in their homes
Direct marketing ۱: A form of nonstore retailing in which a promotional message is delivered directly to potential customers, who respond directly to the company rather than through a traditional point of sale such as store. 2: Nonstore sales to consumers and organisational buyers via mail and telephone. 3: Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response, and cultivate lasting customer relationships
Cost per customer purchasing A cost effectiveness measure used in direct marketing based on the cost per sale generated
Professional sales representatives Territory managers whose primary task is persuasive and creative face-to-face selling and account management
Agents (brokers) Intermediaries who help bring manufacturers and retailers together and arrange sales for a commission payment; they do not také legal title to products
Broker A wholesaler who does not take title to goods and whose function is to bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiation
Selling agents Agents who distribute the entire output of a manufacturer
Commission merchants Merchants who receive goods on consignment from producers, také the merchandise to a central market, sell at the best price possible, deduct their commission, and remit the balance to the producer
Freight forwarders Agencies which provide a combining service by which partial shipments (usually under 500 pounds) are assembled from several customers
Industrial sales people People who sell goods and services used for producing other goods or for rendering other services
Manufacturer’s sales branches and offices Wholesaling by sellers or buyers themselves rather than through independent wholesalers
Vending machines A form of non-store, non-personal selling which takes to the extreme the transaction between consumer and machine
String streets Major thoroughfares along which are found random collections of almost every kind of store
Support personnel People who aid efforts of professional sales representatives and order takers
Tying contract An agreement between a supplier and an intermediary which requires the intermediary to buy product B in order to also get product A
Common carriers Those transportation providers which offer their services for the use of others, and are under certain governmental regulations concerning the provision of such services
Vertical marketing systems A system in which the functions of members at different levels in the distribution channel have been integrated under the ownership or influence of one member in order to set shared goals and to achieve effective performance
Backward integration The approach by which the intermediaries acquire control over manufacturers
Forward integration The approach in which the manufacturers acquire control over wholesalers and retailers

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