دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۱

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Marketing communications mix (promotion mix) The specific mix of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct-marketing tools a company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing objectives
Advertising Any paid form of non-personal communication, usually delivered through mass media by an identified sponsor
Personal selling Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships
Publicity A form of promotion composed of newsworthy messages sent through the media on a non-paid basis
Direct marketing Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response, and cultivate lasting customer relationships
Sales promotion Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service
Integrated marketing communications (IMC) The concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its products
Buyer-readiness stages The stages consumers normally pass through on their way to purchase, including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase
Personal communication channels Channels through which two or more people communicate directly with one another, whether face to face, by telephone, by mail, or via the Internet
Word-of-mouth influence Personal communication about a product between target buyers and neighbors, friends, family members, and associates
Prospect A potential (but not yet) customer
Initial approach The first contact by a salesperson with a prospect, usually to arrange a meeting
Informal information The mixture of unorganized, irregular daily communications which flows to most of us in contemporary society
Perceptual map The result of the process when marketers ask a representative group of buyers within a market segment to compare brands in a certain category
Communication The process of sharing meaning through the use of symbols = The passing of information, exchange of ideas, or processes of establishing shared meaning between a sender and a receiver
Communications flow The movement of information through the channels of distribution; includes the flow of promotion from manufacturers through intermediaries to consumers, and the flow of market information from consumers back through intermediaries to manufacturers
۵-Ws model of communication A model of the communications process that contains five basic elements” who? (source), says what? (message), in what way? (channel), to whom? (receiver), and with what effect? (feedback)
Cognitive processing The process by which an individual transforms external information into meaning or patterns of thought and how these meanings are used to form judgments or choices about behavior
Cognitive dissonance A state of psychological tension or post-purchase doubt that a consumer may experience after making a purchase decision. This tension often leads the consumer to try to reduce it by seeking supportive information
Cognitive responses Thoughts that occur to a message recipient while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication
Compliance A type of influence process where a receiver accepts the position advocated by a source to obtain favorable outcomes or avoid punishment
Communication objectives Goals that an organisation seeks to achieve through its promotional program in terms of communication effect such as creating awareness, knowledge, image, attitudes, preferences, or purchase intentions
AIDA model A model that depicts the successive stages a buyer passes through in the personal selling process including: attention, interest, desire, and action
Classical conditioning A learning process whereby a conditioned stimulus that elicits a response is paired with a neutral stimulus that does not elicit any particular response. Through repeated exposure, the neutral stimulus becomes to elicit the same response as the conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response In classical conditioning, a response that occurs as a result of exposure to a conditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus In classical conditioning, a stimulus that becomes associated with and unconditioned stimulus and capable of evoking the same response or reaction as the unconditioned stimulus
Communication task Under DAGMAR approach to setting advertising goals and objectives, something that can be performed by and attributed to advertising such as awareness, comprehension, conviction and action
DAGMAR An acronym that stands for defining advertising goals for measured advertising results. An approach to setting goals and objectives developed by Russell Colley
ASI recall test A day-after recall test of television commercials (formerly known as Burke test)
Central route to persuasion One of two routes to persuasion recognised by the elaboration likelyhood model. The central route to persuasion views a message recipient as very active and involved in the communications process and as having the ability and motivation to attend to and process a message
Absolute costs The actual total cost of placing an ad in a particular media vehicle
Follow up The final selling step which involves actions after the sale to ensure that the order is received on time and as specified
Two-step communication The notion that communications flow from the media to opinion leaders, and then from opinion leaders to other members of society
Source The communicator sending a message to other party or parties
Receiver The person who decodes the message transmitted by the source
Counterargument A type of thought or cognitive response a receiver has that is counter or opposed to the position advocated in a message
Encoding The process by which a source chooses signs and symbols to construct a message
Decoding The process of translating or interpreting the symbols of a message to derive its meaning
Coverage A measure of potential audience that might receive an advertising message through a media vehicle
Feedback  The response or reaction that a receiver may give the source as a result of messages
Source credibility The extent to which the source of a communication is believable to the target audience
Channel (medium) The vehicle for transmitting a message = The method or medium by which communication travels from a source or sender to a receiver
Copy platform A document that specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy such as the basic problem or issue the advertising must address, the advertising and communication objectives, target audience, major selling idea or key benefits to communicate, campaign theme or appeal, and supportive information or requirements
Copywriters Individuals who help conceive the ideas for ads and commercials and write the words or copy for them

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