دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۲

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Body copyThe main text portion of a print ad. Also often referred as a copy
BillingsThe amount of client money agencies spend on media purchases and other equivalent activities. Billings are often used as a way of measuring the size of advertising agencies
Cost per rating pointA computation used by media buyers to compare the cost efficiency of broadcast programs that divides the cost of commercial time on a program by the audience rating
Cost per thousandA computation used in evaluating the relative cost of various media vehicles that represents the cost of exposing 1000 members of target audience to an advertising message
Account executiveThe individual who serves as the liaison between the advertising agency and the client. The account executive is responsible for managing all of the services the agency provides to the client and representing the agency’s point of view to the client
ReachThe proportion of the target audience who will see an advertisement at least once Gross ratings point (GRP) = A unit of reach times frequency; thus, a GRP of 1 indicates that 1 percent of target market audience saw the advertisement once
AdjacenciesCommercial spots purchased from local television stations that generally appear during the time periods adjacent to network programs
FrequencyThe number of times, on average, that each person reached will see or hear the advertisement
Average frequencyThe number of times the average household reached by a media schedule is exposed to a media vehicle over a specified period
Average quarter-hour figure (AQH)The average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five minutes during 15-minute period
Average quarter-hour ratingThe average quarter-hour figure estimate expressed as a percentage of the population being measured
Average quarter-hour shareThe percentage of the total listening audience tuned to each station as a percentage of the total listening audience in the survey area
Recall testsTests of print advertisements which do not assists the respondent’s memory by providing the ads themselves
Concave downward functionAn advertising /sales response function that views the incremental effects of advertising on sales as decreasing
Creative executionThe process involved in deciding how the message is to be said in an advertisement
Recognition testTest of effectiveness of print advertising which measures the ability to recognize an advertisement when presented
Reference groupGroups to which people turn in order to measure the acceptability of what they do
AttractivenessA source characteristic that makes him or her appealing to a message recipient. Source attractiveness can be based on similarity, familiarity, or likability
InfluencersPeople whose expertise or opinions have a bearing on the purchase decision
Pull strategyA strategy through which marketers aim mass promotional efforts at consumers and customers with the intent to create demand which pulls the product through the channels = A promotion strategy that calls for spending a lot on advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand, which pulls the product through the channels
Push strategyA strategy through which personal selling and sales promotion are directed at channel members, who then promote product to consumers = A promotion strategy that calls for using the sales force and trade promotion to push the product through channels
Pulsing (or flighting)A strategy of unevenly timed exposure as advertisments
GatekeepersThose who can control information flow to members of the buying center-and to prospective suppliers
PromotionAll aspects of the marketing mix designed to communicate with and influence target markets
Promotion strategyA communication plan designed to bring about desired buyer behaviours by employing a mix of the four elements of promotion
Promotion mixThe blend of promotional elements selected and the extent to which each is used to influence product market, push-pull, readeness and a life cycle
All-you-can-afford approachThe strategy of setting the advertising budget as high as possible
Arbitrary allocationA method for determining the budget for advertising and promotion based on arbitrary decisions of executives
Build-up approachA method of determining the budget for advertising and promotion by determining the specific tasks that have to be performed and estimating the costs of performing them. See objective and task method
Cost plus systemA method compensating advertising agency whereby the agency receives a fee based on the cost of the work it performs plus an agreed amount for profit
Point-of-purchase (POP) promotionDisplay and demonstration that takes place at the point of purchase or sale
Contests, sweepstakes, gamesPromotional events that give consumers the chance to win something—such as cash, trips, or goods—by luck or through extra effort
SalespersonAn individual acting for a company by performing one or more of the following activities: prospecting, communicating, servicing, and information gathering
Territorial sales force structureA sales force organization that assigns each salesperson to an exclusive geographic territory in which that salesperson sells the company’s full line.
Product sales force structureA sales force organization under which salespeople specialize in selling only a portion of the company’s products or lines
Customer sales force structureA sales force organization under which salespeople specialize in selling only to certain customers or industries
Workload approachAn approach to setting sales force size in which the company groups accounts into different size classes and then determines how many salespeople are needed to call on each class of accounts the desired number of times
Outside sales forceOutside salespeople who travel to call on customers. Also known as field sales force
Inside sales forceInside salespeople who conduct business from their offices via telephone or visits from prospective buyers
TelemarketingUsing the telephone to sell directly to customers
Team sellingUsing teams of people from sales, marketing, engineering, finance, technical support, and even upper management to service large, complex accounts
Sales quotasStandards set for salespeople, stating the amount they should sell and how sales should be divided among the company’s products
Selling processThe steps that the salesperson follows when selling, which include prospecting and qualifying, preapproach, approach, presentation and demonstration, handling objections, closing, and follow-up
ProspectingThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson identifies qualified potential customers
PreapproachThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson learns as much as possible about a prospective customer before making a sales call
ApproachThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson meets and greets the buyer to get the relationship off to a good start
PresentationThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson tells the product “story” to the buyer, showing how the product will make or save money for the buyer
Handling objectionsThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson seeks out, clarifies, and overcomes customer objections to buying
ClosingThe step in the selling process in which the salesperson asks the customer for an order
Follow-upThe last step in the selling process in which the salesperson follows up after the sale to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business
Relationship marketingThe process of creating, maintaining, and enhancing strong, value-laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders
Consumer-oriented sales promotionSales promotion techniques that are targeted to the ultimate consumer such as coupons, samples, contests, rebates, sweepstakes, and premium offers
ClientsThe organisations with the products, services, or causes to be marketed and for which advertising agencies and other marketing promotional firms provide services
Advertising objectiveA specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time
Business-to-business advertisingAdvertising used by one business to promote the products and/or services it sells to another business
Attitude toward the adA message recipient’s effective feelings of favor-ability or unfavorability toward an advertisement
Advertising appealThe basis or approach used in an advertising message to attract the attention or interest of consumers and / or influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause
Creative execution styleThe manner in which a particular advertising appeal is transformed into a message
Affect referral decision ruleA type of decision rule where selections are made on the basis of an overall impression or effective summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
Consent orderA settlement between a company and the Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser agrees to stop the advertising or practice in question. A consent order is for settlement purposes only and does not constitute an admission of guilt
Carryover effectDelayed or lagged effect whereby the impact of advertising on sales can occur during a subsequent time period
Advertising campaigna comprehensive advertising plan that consists of a series of messages in a variety of media that centre on a single theme or idea
AdvertisersThe identified sponsors who pay to promote their goods, services, and ideas to target audiences
Advertising agencyA firm that specialises in the creation, production, and placement of advertising messages and may provide other services that facilitate the marketing communication process
Clipping serviceA service which clips competitors’ advertising from local print media allowing the company to monitor the types of advertising they are running or to estimate their advertising expenditures
Advertising creativityThe ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems
Advertising managerThe individual in the organisation who is responsible for the planning, co-ordinating, budgeting, and implementing of the advertising program
Big ideaA unique idea for an advertisement or campaign that attracts consumers’ attention, gets a reaction, and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competition
Advertising specialitiesItems used as giveaways to serve as a reminder or stimulate remembrance of a company or brand such as calendars, T-shirts, pens, key tags, and the like. Specialities are usually imprinted with a company or brand name or other identifying marks such as address and phone number
Advertising substantiationA Federal Trade Commission regulatory program that requires advertisers to have documentation to support the claims made in their advertisements
Affirmative disclosureA U.S. Federal Trade Commission program whereby advertisers may be required to include certain types of information in their advertisements so consumers will be aware of all consequences, conditions, and limitations associated with the use of product or service

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