دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۲

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Body copy The main text portion of a print ad. Also often referred as a copy
Billings The amount of client money agencies spend on media purchases and other equivalent activities. Billings are often used as a way of measuring the size of advertising agencies
Cost per rating point A computation used by media buyers to compare the cost efficiency of broadcast programs that divides the cost of commercial time on a program by the audience rating
Cost per thousand A computation used in evaluating the relative cost of various media vehicles that represents the cost of exposing 1000 members of target audience to an advertising message
Account executive The individual who serves as the liaison between the advertising agency and the client. The account executive is responsible for managing all of the services the agency provides to the client and representing the agency’s point of view to the client
Reach The proportion of the target audience who will see an advertisement at least once Gross ratings point (GRP) = A unit of reach times frequency; thus, a GRP of 1 indicates that 1 percent of target market audience saw the advertisement once
Adjacencies Commercial spots purchased from local television stations that generally appear during the time periods adjacent to network programs
Frequency The number of times, on average, that each person reached will see or hear the advertisement
Average frequency The number of times the average household reached by a media schedule is exposed to a media vehicle over a specified period
Average quarter-hour figure (AQH) The average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five minutes during 15-minute period
Average quarter-hour rating The average quarter-hour figure estimate expressed as a percentage of the population being measured
Average quarter-hour share The percentage of the total listening audience tuned to each station as a percentage of the total listening audience in the survey area
Recall tests Tests of print advertisements which do not assists the respondent’s memory by providing the ads themselves
Concave downward function An advertising /sales response function that views the incremental effects of advertising on sales as decreasing
Creative execution The process involved in deciding how the message is to be said in an advertisement
Recognition test Test of effectiveness of print advertising which measures the ability to recognize an advertisement when presented
Reference group Groups to which people turn in order to measure the acceptability of what they do
Attractiveness A source characteristic that makes him or her appealing to a message recipient. Source attractiveness can be based on similarity, familiarity, or likability
Influencers People whose expertise or opinions have a bearing on the purchase decision
Pull strategy A strategy through which marketers aim mass promotional efforts at consumers and customers with the intent to create demand which pulls the product through the channels = A promotion strategy that calls for spending a lot on advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand, which pulls the product through the channels
Push strategy A strategy through which personal selling and sales promotion are directed at channel members, who then promote product to consumers = A promotion strategy that calls for using the sales force and trade promotion to push the product through channels
Pulsing (or flighting) A strategy of unevenly timed exposure as advertisments
Gatekeepers Those who can control information flow to members of the buying center-and to prospective suppliers
Promotion All aspects of the marketing mix designed to communicate with and influence target markets
Promotion strategy A communication plan designed to bring about desired buyer behaviours by employing a mix of the four elements of promotion
Promotion mix The blend of promotional elements selected and the extent to which each is used to influence product market, push-pull, readeness and a life cycle
All-you-can-afford approach The strategy of setting the advertising budget as high as possible
Arbitrary allocation A method for determining the budget for advertising and promotion based on arbitrary decisions of executives
Build-up approach A method of determining the budget for advertising and promotion by determining the specific tasks that have to be performed and estimating the costs of performing them. See objective and task method
Cost plus system A method compensating advertising agency whereby the agency receives a fee based on the cost of the work it performs plus an agreed amount for profit
Point-of-purchase (POP) promotion Display and demonstration that takes place at the point of purchase or sale
Contests, sweepstakes, games Promotional events that give consumers the chance to win something—such as cash, trips, or goods—by luck or through extra effort
Salesperson An individual acting for a company by performing one or more of the following activities: prospecting, communicating, servicing, and information gathering
Territorial sales force structure A sales force organization that assigns each salesperson to an exclusive geographic territory in which that salesperson sells the company’s full line.
Product sales force structure A sales force organization under which salespeople specialize in selling only a portion of the company’s products or lines
Customer sales force structure A sales force organization under which salespeople specialize in selling only to certain customers or industries
Workload approach An approach to setting sales force size in which the company groups accounts into different size classes and then determines how many salespeople are needed to call on each class of accounts the desired number of times
Outside sales force Outside salespeople who travel to call on customers. Also known as field sales force
Inside sales force Inside salespeople who conduct business from their offices via telephone or visits from prospective buyers
Telemarketing Using the telephone to sell directly to customers
Team selling Using teams of people from sales, marketing, engineering, finance, technical support, and even upper management to service large, complex accounts
Sales quotas Standards set for salespeople, stating the amount they should sell and how sales should be divided among the company’s products
Selling process The steps that the salesperson follows when selling, which include prospecting and qualifying, preapproach, approach, presentation and demonstration, handling objections, closing, and follow-up
Prospecting The step in the selling process in which the salesperson identifies qualified potential customers
Preapproach The step in the selling process in which the salesperson learns as much as possible about a prospective customer before making a sales call
Approach The step in the selling process in which the salesperson meets and greets the buyer to get the relationship off to a good start
Presentation The step in the selling process in which the salesperson tells the product “story” to the buyer, showing how the product will make or save money for the buyer
Handling objections The step in the selling process in which the salesperson seeks out, clarifies, and overcomes customer objections to buying
Closing The step in the selling process in which the salesperson asks the customer for an order
Follow-up The last step in the selling process in which the salesperson follows up after the sale to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business
Relationship marketing The process of creating, maintaining, and enhancing strong, value-laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders
Consumer-oriented sales promotion Sales promotion techniques that are targeted to the ultimate consumer such as coupons, samples, contests, rebates, sweepstakes, and premium offers
Clients The organisations with the products, services, or causes to be marketed and for which advertising agencies and other marketing promotional firms provide services
Advertising objective A specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time
Business-to-business advertising Advertising used by one business to promote the products and/or services it sells to another business
Attitude toward the ad A message recipient’s effective feelings of favor-ability or unfavorability toward an advertisement
Advertising appeal The basis or approach used in an advertising message to attract the attention or interest of consumers and / or influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause
Creative execution style The manner in which a particular advertising appeal is transformed into a message
Affect referral decision rule A type of decision rule where selections are made on the basis of an overall impression or effective summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
Consent order A settlement between a company and the Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser agrees to stop the advertising or practice in question. A consent order is for settlement purposes only and does not constitute an admission of guilt
Carryover effect Delayed or lagged effect whereby the impact of advertising on sales can occur during a subsequent time period
Advertising campaign a comprehensive advertising plan that consists of a series of messages in a variety of media that centre on a single theme or idea
Advertisers The identified sponsors who pay to promote their goods, services, and ideas to target audiences
Advertising agency A firm that specialises in the creation, production, and placement of advertising messages and may provide other services that facilitate the marketing communication process
Clipping service A service which clips competitors’ advertising from local print media allowing the company to monitor the types of advertising they are running or to estimate their advertising expenditures
Advertising creativity The ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems
Advertising manager The individual in the organisation who is responsible for the planning, co-ordinating, budgeting, and implementing of the advertising program
Big idea A unique idea for an advertisement or campaign that attracts consumers’ attention, gets a reaction, and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competition
Advertising specialities Items used as giveaways to serve as a reminder or stimulate remembrance of a company or brand such as calendars, T-shirts, pens, key tags, and the like. Specialities are usually imprinted with a company or brand name or other identifying marks such as address and phone number
Advertising substantiation A Federal Trade Commission regulatory program that requires advertisers to have documentation to support the claims made in their advertisements
Affirmative disclosure A U.S. Federal Trade Commission program whereby advertisers may be required to include certain types of information in their advertisements so consumers will be aware of all consequences, conditions, and limitations associated with the use of product or service

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