دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۳

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Image advertising Advertising which aims to establish a positive identity for the corporation or to rebut criticism
Advocacy or issue advertising Advertising which takes a stand on some issue on behalf of the advertiser; is not designed to promote products
Advocacy advertising Advertising that is concerned with the propagation of ideas and elucidation of social issues of public importance in a manner that supports the position and interest of the sponsor
Continuity The strategy of scheduling the advertising evenly over the weeks and months of the year = Media scheduling strategy where a continuous pattern of advertising is used over the time span of the advertising campaign
Characterisation attributes Those attributes used in advertising which associate the product with the kind of people who use it
Pioneer advertisements Advertisements that that increase primary demand for the product that bring nonusers into the users category
Direct action advertisements Advertisements designed to move consumers and customers to take some immediate action
Emotional advertisements Advertisements that attempt to create moods that will subsequently be associated with the product
Financial-relation advertising Advertising which portrays the corporation as fiscally sound and run by forward-looking management
Competitive advertisements Advertisements that create selective demand-that is, a preference for the advertiser’s brand as opposed to a competitors
Comparative advertising The practice of either or indirectly naming one or more competitors in advertising message and usually making a comparison on one or more specific attributes or characteristics
Reinforcement advertisements Advertisements that booster and enhance satisfaction with purchases already made
Reminder advertisements Advertisements that aim at reinforcement by keeping the product in the buyers’ minds
Delayed-action advertising The advertisements which attempt to influence consumer attitudes and preferences, thus helping to set the stage for a purchase
Slice-of-life advertisements Advertisements that show the product being used by ‘ordinary people’ in very common settings or engaged in everyday activities
Trade advertisements Advertisements for the purpose of influencing intermediaries either to stock a product or to advance it through distribution channels on its way to ultimate consumers
Informative advertisements Advertising for the purpose of creating knowledge of the product
Testimonial advertisements Advertisements that attempt to get consumer to identify with someone who claims that he or she uses and likes the product
Flighting (or pulsing) The strategy of unevenly timed exposures of advertising
Aerial advertising A form of outdoor advertising where messages appear in the sky in the form of banners pulled by aeroplanes, skywriting, and on blimps
Vehicles Specific outlets within a larger advertising medium
Industrial advertisements Advertising to promote goods and services for business and organisational use
Co-operative advertising  A form of promotion in which the manufacturer makes available to the wholesaler-or more commonly to the retailer- a fund intended to help cover the costs of the channel member’s advertising which features the manufacturer’s brand
Corporate advertising Campaigns formerly known as public opinion, image, or institutional advertising-media space or time bought for the benefit of the corporation rather than of any of its products
Creative strategy The primary message to be communicated by the advertising campaign. This is the major responsibility of the advertising agency
Creative tactics A determination of how and advertising message will be implemented so as to execute the creative strategy
Creative boutiques Small agencies specialising in the creative work for an advertising campaign
Creative service department The section of an advertising agency which is responsible for the creation, design, and production of whatever will appear or be heard on radio or television or in print
Full-service advertising agency The type of advertising agency that has the resources to offer its clients a wide range of services, including the four most basic services: account management/marketing, creative, media, and research
Agency evaluation process The process by which a company evaluates the performance of its advertising agency. This process includes both financial and qualitative aspects
In-house agencies Advertising agencies owned by the advertiser, which perform the functions of a full-service advertising agency
Costs per thousand (CPM) The media cost of reaching 1000 persons, used to compare across media vehicles
Copyright The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work
Lables A lable encompasses any printed information on the packaging that describes the product
Informative lables Lables that tell the consumer about the product’s ingredients, use, dating, and so on
Brand  A name, term, symbol, or design or a combination of them that is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from products of competitors
Brand equity The value of a brand, based on the extent to which it has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality, strong brand associations, and other assets such as patents, trademarks, and channel relationships
Brand extension Using a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new category
Co-branding The practice of using the established brand names of two different companies on the same product
Forms of fighting brands national, own, private, product, family, blanket
Brand development index (BDI) An index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a brand’s total sales that occur in a given market as compared to the percentage of the total population in the market
Brand extension strategy The strategy of applying an existing brand name to a new product

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