دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۴

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Brand loyaltyreferences by a consumer for a particular brand that results in continual purchase of it
Evoked setThe subset of available brands of a product class which a consumer considers appropriate alternatives, and from which a choice is made
Family brandsThe assignment of the same or similar names to multiple products made by the same company in which the name of the company is often employed
Brand managerThe individual in an organisation responsible for planning, implementing, and controlling the marketing program for a particular brand. Brand managers are sometimes referred to as product managers
Brand competitorsOther companies which also manufacture the same product
Brand imageThe overall concept of the product as perceived by consumers
Brand insistenceThe phenomenon that occurs when consumers demand a certain product and will go out of their way to get it
Brand markThe part of a brand which can be recognised but is not utterable
Brand nameThe part of a brand which can be vocalised-the utterable
Brand non-recognitionThe fact that people do not know the existence of the brand
Brand recognitionThe simple awareness that a product exists, apart from competing products
Brand preferenceThe attitude taken by consumers who have tried a brand and have at least moderately positive attitudes toward it
Brand rejectionThe rejection of a brand by a consumer who has negative experience with it
Individual brandsBrands which have no obvious connection with the parent company
Business libelMaking an unfair or untrue written statement about a competitor
Business slanderMaking an unfair or untrue oral statement about a competitor
Trade characterA brand mark that represents a human being or an animal associated with a product
Trade nameThe name under which a company chooses to conduct its business, which may or may not also be a brand name
Trade promotionsPromotional methods that spur action on the part of channel members, such as additional orders from retailers or a special push by a wholesaler to promote one manufacturer’s products
Trade showsSpecial gathering of buyers and sellers of a line of products, usually once per year, where new products can be shown and orders taken for a selling season
TrademarkA brand or part of a brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation
Private(store) brandsBrands of products made by manufacturers for sale by intermediaries under a label of the intermediary’s own choice = A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or service
Persuasive lablesLables which have promotional intent
Affordable methodA method determining the budget for advertising and promotion where all other budget areas are covered and remaining monies are available for allocation
Percentage-of-sales methodSetting the promotion budget at a certain percentage of current or forecasted sales or as a percentage of the unit sales price
Competitive-parity methodSetting the promotion budget to match competitors’ outlays
Objective-and-task approachAn approach in which marketers establish advertising objectives, than calculate the costs of the methods selected to achieve these goals in order to arrive at a budget
Combination ratesA special rate discount offered for advertising in two or more periodicals. Combination rates are often offered by publishers who own both morning
Commission systemA method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the agency receives a specified commission (traditionally 15 percent) from the media on any advertising time or space it purchases
Selling positionThe specific promotional idea used to present the product to buyers in the target market
StoryboardsSketches, written copy, and directions used to communicate a television commercial’s message
SweepstakesA promotional method in which consumers fill out a form to enter a random drawing for prizes
Bait-and-switch promotionA practice through which the retailer brings buyers to the store with advertising for a bargain price on a product which is not in adequate supply with the intent of switching the buyer to a higher priced product
CouponCertificate that gives buyers a saving when they purchase a specified product
In-pack couponscoupons that are affixed to the product and allow savings on a future purchase
AffiliatesLocal television stations that are associated with a major network. Affiliates agree to preempt time during specified hours for programming provided by the network and carry the advertising contained in the program
Barter syndicationThe offering of television programs to local stations free or at a reduced rate but with some of the advertising time pre-sold to national advertisers. The remaining advertising time can be sold to local advertisers
AnimaticA preliminary version of a commercial whereby a videotape of the frames of a storyboard is produced along with an audio soundtrack
Broadcast mediaUnit of newspaper space measurement, 1 column wide by 1/14 inch deep. Thus 14 agate lines = 1 column inch

Alternative media = A term commonly used in advertising to describe support media

AudiotexThe use of telephone and voice information services to market, advertise, promote, entertain, and inform consumers
ClutterThe non-program material that appears in a broadcast environment, including commercials, promotional messages for shows, public service announcements, and the like
Bleed pagesMagazine advertisements where the printed area extends to the edge of the page, eliminating any white margin or border around the ad
Classified advertisingAdvertising that runs in newspapers and magazines that generally contains text only and is arranged under subheadings according to the product, service, or offering. Employment, real estate, and automotive ads are the major forms of classified advertising

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