دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۴

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Brand loyalty references by a consumer for a particular brand that results in continual purchase of it
Evoked set The subset of available brands of a product class which a consumer considers appropriate alternatives, and from which a choice is made
Family brands The assignment of the same or similar names to multiple products made by the same company in which the name of the company is often employed
Brand manager The individual in an organisation responsible for planning, implementing, and controlling the marketing program for a particular brand. Brand managers are sometimes referred to as product managers
Brand competitors Other companies which also manufacture the same product
Brand image The overall concept of the product as perceived by consumers
Brand insistence The phenomenon that occurs when consumers demand a certain product and will go out of their way to get it
Brand mark The part of a brand which can be recognised but is not utterable
Brand name The part of a brand which can be vocalised-the utterable
Brand non-recognition The fact that people do not know the existence of the brand
Brand recognition The simple awareness that a product exists, apart from competing products
Brand preference The attitude taken by consumers who have tried a brand and have at least moderately positive attitudes toward it
Brand rejection The rejection of a brand by a consumer who has negative experience with it
Individual brands Brands which have no obvious connection with the parent company
Business libel Making an unfair or untrue written statement about a competitor
Business slander Making an unfair or untrue oral statement about a competitor
Trade character A brand mark that represents a human being or an animal associated with a product
Trade name The name under which a company chooses to conduct its business, which may or may not also be a brand name
Trade promotions Promotional methods that spur action on the part of channel members, such as additional orders from retailers or a special push by a wholesaler to promote one manufacturer’s products
Trade shows Special gathering of buyers and sellers of a line of products, usually once per year, where new products can be shown and orders taken for a selling season
Trademark A brand or part of a brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation
Private(store) brands Brands of products made by manufacturers for sale by intermediaries under a label of the intermediary’s own choice = A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or service
Persuasive lables Lables which have promotional intent
Affordable method A method determining the budget for advertising and promotion where all other budget areas are covered and remaining monies are available for allocation
Percentage-of-sales method Setting the promotion budget at a certain percentage of current or forecasted sales or as a percentage of the unit sales price
Competitive-parity method Setting the promotion budget to match competitors’ outlays
Objective-and-task approach An approach in which marketers establish advertising objectives, than calculate the costs of the methods selected to achieve these goals in order to arrive at a budget
Combination rates A special rate discount offered for advertising in two or more periodicals. Combination rates are often offered by publishers who own both morning
Commission system A method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the agency receives a specified commission (traditionally 15 percent) from the media on any advertising time or space it purchases
Selling position The specific promotional idea used to present the product to buyers in the target market
Storyboards Sketches, written copy, and directions used to communicate a television commercial’s message
Sweepstakes A promotional method in which consumers fill out a form to enter a random drawing for prizes
Bait-and-switch promotion A practice through which the retailer brings buyers to the store with advertising for a bargain price on a product which is not in adequate supply with the intent of switching the buyer to a higher priced product
Coupon Certificate that gives buyers a saving when they purchase a specified product
In-pack coupons coupons that are affixed to the product and allow savings on a future purchase
Affiliates Local television stations that are associated with a major network. Affiliates agree to preempt time during specified hours for programming provided by the network and carry the advertising contained in the program
Barter syndication The offering of television programs to local stations free or at a reduced rate but with some of the advertising time pre-sold to national advertisers. The remaining advertising time can be sold to local advertisers
Animatic A preliminary version of a commercial whereby a videotape of the frames of a storyboard is produced along with an audio soundtrack
Broadcast media Unit of newspaper space measurement, 1 column wide by 1/14 inch deep. Thus 14 agate lines = 1 column inch

Alternative media = A term commonly used in advertising to describe support media

Audiotex The use of telephone and voice information services to market, advertise, promote, entertain, and inform consumers
Clutter The non-program material that appears in a broadcast environment, including commercials, promotional messages for shows, public service announcements, and the like
Bleed pages Magazine advertisements where the printed area extends to the edge of the page, eliminating any white margin or border around the ad
Classified advertising Advertising that runs in newspapers and magazines that generally contains text only and is arranged under subheadings according to the product, service, or offering. Employment, real estate, and automotive ads are the major forms of classified advertising

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