دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۶

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Balanced product portfolio A proper mix of new, growing, and mature products whose sales provide the cash flow to ensure long-term prosperity
Variety discrepancy The difference between the number of different products produced by marketers and the variety desired by consumers
Product competitors Companies which are filling the same market needs with a slightly different offering
New product development The development of original products, product improvements, product modifications, and new brands through the firm’s own R&D efforts
Idea generation The systematic search for new-product ideas
Idea screening Screening new-product ideas in order to spot good ideas and drop poor ones as soon as possible
New product concept A detailed version of the new-product idea stated in meaningful consumer terms
Concept testing Testing new-product concepts with a group of target consumers to find out if the concepts have strong consumer appeal
Marketing strategy development Designing an initial marketing strategy for a new product based on the product concept
Business analysis satisfy the company’s objectives A review of the sales, costs, and profit projections for a new product to find out whether these factors
Product development A strategy for company growth by offering modified or new prodcuts to current market segments. Developing the product concept into a physical product in order to ensure that the product idea can be turned into a workable product
Test marketing The stage of new-product development in which the product and marketing program are tested in more realistic market settings The process in which the product is actually introduced into selected geographical markets where developers can observe how consumers and dealers react to the handling, use, and promotion of the product
Commercialization Introducing a new product into the market
Product development process The process comprising of series of steps involved in getting a product on the market: idea generation, screening, feasibility studies, prototype development, test marketing, and commercialisation
Sequential product development next department and stage A new-product development approach in which one company department works to complete its stage of the process before passing the new product along to the
Simultaneous (or team-based) product development An approach to developing new products in which various company departments work closely together, overlapping the steps in the product-development process to save time and increase effectiveness
New-product business plan A plan that includes estimates for new-product development, submitted by marketing, production, and accounting personnel
New-task buying The situation generated by an unfamiliar problem with an old product or the need for a new product in the buying process
Worldwide product division A form of organisation under which each of the company’s major product lines, or business units, is responsible for the marketing of its product throughout the world
Product ladder The concept that states that consumers perceive brands of a product to be arrayed from top to bottom in terms of their familiarity and preference
Product disparagments Making false or deceptive comparisons or distorted claims concerning a competitor’s product, services, or property
Product adaptation A global marketing strategy whereby the product is adapted to foreign market needs, but the promotional program used in the domestic market is used in foreign markets
Product invention A global marketing strategy whereby a new product is created specifically for the needs of the foreign market, and is then promoted to this market
Adoption process A process which is made up of the stages that individuals, households, or organisations go through in accepting an innovation
Product elimination Withdrawal of a product from the normal market place
Product line extension Development of greater depth by adding new product varieties
Product manager (brand manager) The person who is responsible for initiating, developing, and implementing product or product line plans
Product-market matrix A visual means of defining a business by its markets and by the products directed towards those markets
Product mix A company’s total offering of individual products
Creative selling A type of sales position where the primary emphasis is on generating new business
Customer lifetime value The amount by which revenues from a given customer over time will exceed the company’s costs of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer
Customer delivered value The difference between total customer value and total customer cost of a marketing offer–”profit” to the customer
Total customer cost The total of all the monetary, time, energy, and psychic costs associated with a marketing offer
Value chain A major tool for identifying ways to create more customer value
Value-delivery network The network made up of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who “partner” with each other to improve the performance of the entire system
Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs
Competitor analysis The process of identifying key competitors; assessing their objectives, strategies, strengths and weaknesses, and reaction patterns; and selecting which competitors to attack or avoid

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