دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۷

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Organisational marketing All marketing efforts directed at buyers for formal institutions, including industrial, service, reseller, government, and not-for-profit groups
Business buying process The decision-making process by which business buyers establish the need for purchased products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers
Derived demand Business demand that ultimately comes from (derives from) the demand for consumer goods
Straight rebuy A business buying situation in which the buyer routinely reorders something without any modifications
Modified rebuy A business buying situation in which the buyer wants to modify product specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers
New task A business buying situation in which the buyer purchases a product or service for the first time
Packaging The activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product
Systems buying Buying a packaged solution to a problem from a single seller
Users Members of the organization who will use the product or service; users often initiate the buying proposal and help define product specifications
Influencers People in an organization’s buying center who affect the buying decision; they often help define specifications and also provide information for evaluating alternatives
Deciders People in the organization’s buying center who have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers

Gatekeepers

People in the organization’s buying center who control the flow of information to others
Problem recognition The first stage of the business buying process in which someone in the company recognizes a problem or need that can be met by acquiring a good or service
General need description The stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Product specification The stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Value analysis An approach to cost reduction in which components are studied carefully to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made by less costly methods of production
Supplier search The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer tries to find the best vendors
Proposal solicitation The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer invites qualified suppliers to submit proposals
Supplier selection The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer reviews proposals and selects a supplier or suppliers
Order-routine specification The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer writes the final order with the chosen supplier(s), listing technical specifications, quantity needed, expected time of delivery, return policies, and warranties
Performance review The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer rates its satisfaction with suppliers, deciding whether to continue, modify or drop them
Institutional market School, hospitals, nursing homes, prisons and other institutions that provide goods and services to people in their care
Government market Government units-federal, state, and local-that purchase or rent goods and services for carrying out the main functions of government
Organisational buying behavior The decision making process by which a buying group establishes the need for goods and services and identifies, evaluates and chooses among alternative brands and suppliers
Customer profile A written record of an account, including information such as type of business, buying influences, the product mix, buying policies and practices, environmental influences, purchase criteria, and competitor analysis
Customer types organisation The organisation method which is based on customer groups, such as departments responsible for marketing to each segment
Buy-phase concept The concept that views organisational purchasing as a series of sequential steps proceeding from recognition of a need through evaluation of the product‘s performance in satisfying that need
Merchant wholesalers Organisations which take title to goods, and which carry the responsibility for risk bearing and usually for performing various functions
Missionary sales people People who perform such diverse tasks as building the organisation‘s image, cultivating relations with decision makers, giving away free samples, and presenting in-depth information about the product
Commercialization A process in which marketers establish full-scale production, set prices, lay out a distribution network, and make final promotion plans to introduce the product in all its markets
Distribution forms of goods; shops and channels special, shopping, convenience; intensive, exclusive, selective
Marketing information system People, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyse. evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers
Marketing intelligence Everyday information about developments in the marketing environment that helps managers prepare and adjust marketing plans
Marketing research

 

The systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization. The systematic and objective research for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing
Exploratory research Research that consists of informal attempts to identify and define problems
Descriptive research Marketing research to better describe marketing problems, situations, or markets, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers
Causal research Marketing research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationship
Threshold effect The concept that very few calls on any account tend not to have any effect on sales until the level of calls reaches a certain level
Qualitative research Research which takes the form of detailed interviews with a small number of consumers or organisational buyers
Stimulated test marketing An approach to new-product testing that does not involve the actual marketing of a new product in test sites as in the traditional test marketing, but uses special consumer reaction research instead
Quantitative research Research based on a statistically valid sampling of a target market
Secondary data Facts previously collected by others, often for other purpose
Primary data Information collected for the specific purpose at hand
Observational research The gathering of primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations
Single-source data systems Electronic monitoring systems that link consumers’ exposure to television advertising and promotion (measured using television meters) with what they buy in stores (measured using store checkout scanners)
Survey research The gathering of primary data by asking people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behaviour
Experimental research The gathering of primary data by selecting matched groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses
Focus group interviewing Personal interviewing that involves inviting six to ten people to gather for a few hours with a trained interviewer to talk about a product, service, or organization
Online (Internet) marketing research Collecting primary data through Internet surveys and online focus groups
Screening process The process which sifts out all ideas that are not feasible or desirable for organisation
Sample A trial amount of a product
Quota sample A sample selected by giving the interviewer a quota of certain number of individuals with some specific characteristic, such as a quota to interview 50 men and 50 women
Simple random sample The process in which individual members of a population would have an equal and known chance of being selected as part of a sample
Systematic random sample The process in which researchers choose every nth (such as every tenth or fifteenth) number after starting with a randomly selected number
Stratified random sample A process that entails breaking the total population into strata, such as by age groups or income levels, in order to select samples within strata
Convenience sample A sample chosen at the convenience of the researcher, such as the first 100 individuals to be found who are members of a population
Judgement sample A sample chosen simply by the judgement of the researcher as to which individuals would be representative of the population, and about which no statistical analyses would be appropriate
Single-person household An individual who lives alone in a separate residence
Survey method A research method based on data gathered by asking respondents to supply facts, opinions, or other information
Questionnaire A data collection instrument that is used for all survey methods
Structured questions Those questions that demand brief and specific answers
Unstructured question Questions that allow respondents a great deal of freedom and creativity in framing answers
Semi-structured question Questions that include sentence completion items and word association tests
Statistical demand analysis Analysis that develops relationship among marketing mix factors and environmental circumstances and sales
Marketing research department (agency) The organisation within an advertising agency which researches consumer attitudes for the client, performs demographic studies, tests the effectiveness of advertising copy or packaging, or conducts research for agency itself
Syndicated research services The scheduled reports which spell out what consumers are buying and what is happening to a product in the market place
Affect referral decision rule A type of decision rule where selections are made on the basis of overall impressions or affective summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
Alpha activity A measure of the degree of brain activity that can be used to assess an individual’s reactions to an advertisement
۸۰/۲۰ rule The principle that 80 percent of sales volume for a product or service is generated by 20 percent of the customers
Contribution margin The difference between the total revenue generated by a product of brand and its total variable costs
Theater tests An expensive method of judging the effectiveness of television commercials. Consumers groups are brought into theaters, supposedly to see pilots of forthcoming television series. They are asked their opinions not only of the pilots but also of the impact and effectiveness of commercials
Time series analysis Analysis that identifies and measures repetitive influences on sales patterns over time
Value analysis A cost-reduction program in which customers study each component of a supplier’s product to determine whether it can be redesigned, standardized, or produced more cheaply
Vendor analysis The buying organisation’s systematic evaluation and rating of prospective suppliers
Work load analysis A method which establishes standards for the number of sales calls required and the time needed to make those calls
Contests Strategy that requires consumers to compete for prizes, typically by completing some type of puzzle or stating why they like the product “in 25 words or less”

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