دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۹

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰

Micromarketing The practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations—includes local marketing and individual marketing
Local marketing Tailoring brands and promotions to the needs and wants of local customer groups—cities, neighborhoods, and even specific stores
Individual marketing Tailoring products and marketing programs to the needs and preferences of individual customers—also labeled one-to-one marketing, customized marketing, and markets-of-one marketing
Segmentation variables Factors by which market segments are formed, e.g., geographic, demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, and psychographic variables
Geographic segmentation Dividing a market into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, counties, cities, or neighborhoods
Demographics A catchall term referring to particular variables describing populations, such as age or sex
Age and life-cycle segmentation Dividing a market into different age and life-cycle group
Gender segmentation Dividing a market into different groups based on sex
Income segmentation Dividing a market into different income groups
Behaviouristic segmentation A method of segmenting a market by dividing customers into groups based on their usage, loyalties, or buying responses to a product or service
Psychographics The system of measurement of life styles
Psychogenic needs Needs which arise from learning and socialisation
Behavioral segmentation Dividing a market into groups based on consumer knowledge, attitude, use, or response to a product
Benefit segmentation A method of segmenting markets on the basis of the major benefits consumers seek in a product or service
Occasion segmentation Dividing the market into groups according to occasions when buyers get the idea to buy, actually make their purchase, or use the purchased item
Intermarket segmentation Forming segments of consumers who have similar needs and buying behavior even though they are located in different countries
Target market A set of buyers sharing common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve
Market targeting The process of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter
Differentiated marketing The strategy of pursuing several market segments with particular products and marketing mixes designed for the needs of each A type of marketing strategy whereby a firm offers products or services to a number of market segments and develops separate marketing strategies for each
Undifferentiated marketing The process opposite of market segmentation; i.e., marketers define their products as broadly as possible and promote a product or service to anyone capable of making a purchase
Concentrated marketing The strategy of focusing on a single, easily defined, profitable market segment
Product-oriented positioning The strategy that rests on some attribute inherent in a product’s makeup, packaging, use, or price
Market positioning Arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers
Product positioning The proces by wich marketers create and image in buyers’ minds and control buyers’ perceptions of their product
Repositioning The conscious effort to change consumers’ perceptions of a product – may be in order when marketers discover that a product appeals to other market segments
Consumer oriented positioning The strategy aimed at getting the consumer to perceive a product in some unique, personally related manner, regardless of the product’s characteristics
Value proposition The full positioning of a brand—the full mix of benefits upon which it is positioned.
Marketing planning The process through which an organisation designs the offerings that will satisfy the needs of its target markets
Marketing research The systematic and objective research for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing
Marketing plan A written document that contains the firm’s marketing strategy and tactics
Product life cycle The product‘s stages of development, which consist of introductory, growth, maturity and decline stage
Demand curve A curve that specifies the quantities demanded at various prices at a given time
Experience curve A curve reflecting the fact that the costs of doing something tend to decrease as the organisation gains experience doing it
Fad A cycle that is different from fashion only in the length of time, which is relatively short
Fashion A cycle usually starting with a designer‘s need to be different, and his or her sense that the new design will be acceptable to at least a segment of the market
Life cycle extension The process of finding new uses for the same product by the same users
Market modification turning non-users to users, entry on new segments, reaching customers of competitors, more frequent and heavier use of product
Product modification improvement quality, features and style of product
Mix modification special and volume discounts, credit accessibility, broadening assortment, more outlets, channels, advertising costs, change of message, media, timing, rebates, gifts, display, territories, delivery speed, and servicing
Introductory stage A stage in a product‘s life in which an innovation is alone in the market
Growth stage A stage in a product‘s life in which sales and profits grow rapidly, competitors are attracted to the growing market, and cash flow can still be negative because of firm‘s efforts to establish a strong market share ahead of competitors. The market is usually turbulent in this period
Maturity stage A stage in which sales growth slows, the market becomes saturated, and profits are high but begin to decline as market leaders cut prices in order to gain share
Decline stage A stage in which total demand decreases, leading to a further drop out of competitors until only a few remain
Alternatives of introductory pricing slow, and rapid penetration, eventually skimming
Concept testing A process involving the accumulation and evaluation of consumers‘ reactions to a new product idea before the product is actually developed
Market share analysis An evaluation of the firm‘s performance in comparison to that of its competitors
Relative market share A firm‘s market share divided by the market share of its largest competitor
Secular trends The rising or falling patterns of sales over a period of years
Seasonal patterns The consistent sales patterns within a year which are based on factors such as weather or holidays
Growth-share matrix A matrix that explains how market share, market growth, and cash flows are related
Marketing implementation The process that turns marketing strategies and plans into marketing actions in order to accomplish strategic marketing objectives
Marketing audit A comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company’s environment, objectives, strategies, and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities and to recommend a plan of action to improve the company’s marketing performance
Barrier to entry Conditions that make difficult for a firm to enter the market in a particular industry, such as high advertising budgets
Price Both the value that buyers place on what is exchanged and the marketers’ estimates of that value
Target costing Pricing that starts with an ideal selling price, then targets costs that will ensure that the price is met
Fixed costs Costs that do not vary with production or sales level
Variable costs Costs that vary directly with the level of production
Total costs The sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production
Experience curve (learning curve) The drop in the average per-unit production cost that comes with accumulated production experience
Demand curve A curve that shows the number of units the market will buy in a given time period at different prices that might be charged
Price elasticity A measure of the sensitivity of demand to changes in price
Total costs approach An overall examination of the costs involved in moving finished goods from the end of the production line into customers’ hands
Break-even pricing (target profit pricing) Setting price to break even on the costs of making and marketing a product; or setting price to make a target profit
Value-based pricing Setting price based on buyers’ perceptions of value rather than on the seller’s cost
Value pricing Offering just the right combination of quality and good service at a fair price
Competition-based pricing Setting prices based on the prices that competitors charge for similar products
Equilibrium (market) price The price at the point where supply equals demand
Basic price The amount marketers estimate consumers will pay for the core product
List price The amount at which a product is priced for final buyers, whether individual consumers or organisation
Cross-elasticity of demand The degree to which the quantity of one product demanded will increase or decrease in response to changes in the prices of another product
Functional accounts Accounting units which divide expenditures according to their purpose

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰