دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۲

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Social marketing / cause marketing  بازاریابی اجتماعی

 

The design, implementation, and control of marketing programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas / The idea that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than do competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer’s and society’s well being
Societal marketing orientation رویکرد/گرایش بازاریابی اجتماعی An approach that adds a consideration to the marketing concept: the impact of a firm‘s activities on societal well-being, the very quality of life
Social marketing بازاریابی اجتماعی The design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea, cause, or practice among a target group
Modified re-buy  خرید مجدد اصلاح شده / ساختار یافته The buying situation in which the buying organisation has some familiarity with the product but needs some assistance / it is buying behaviour between a strait re-buy and a new-task purchase
Marketing information system سیستم اطلاعات مدیریت The continuously interacting structure of people, machines, and procedures that produces information pertinent to marketing decisions
Marketing intelligence network  شبکه هوشمند بازاریابی A set of procedures and sources designed to monitor the organisations‘ external environments, particularly the competitive environment
Marketing mix آمیخته بازاریابی

 آمیزه بازاریابی

The set of controllable tactical marketing tools—product, price, place, and promotion—that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market = Marketing programs including product conception (and development), pricing decisions, promotion of the product, and distribution to consumers
Marketing control  کنترل بازاریابی The process of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and taking corrective action to ensure that marketing objectives are achieved /The process of evaluating of achieved results against established standards, and of taking corrective action to exploit opportunities or solve problems
Peripheral values  ارزشهای محیطی Values that reflect, but are not as deeply embedded or as fundamental as, central values
Personal income  درآمد شخصی A persons total income from all sources
Marketing orientation  رویکرد/گرایش بازاریابی An approach to business that focuses primarily on what a firm does to satisfy consumer‘s needs
Marketing and manufacturing company شرکت تولید و بازاریابی A form of subsidiary organisation which handles all functions of a marketing company but also maintains a production facility for the manufacture of the product
Games بازی ها Promotional methods that require consumers to take specific actions, such as determining whether the card they received with the product contains a winning number by rubbing it with the edge of a coin, or collecting several cards to produce the winning combination
Creativity  خلاقیت A quality possessed by persons that enables them to generate novel approaches, generally reflected in new and improved solutions to problems
Marketing environment  بازاریابی محیطی The actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers
Macroenvironment محیط کلان The larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment¾demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural forces
Microenvironment  محیط خرد The forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve customers¾the company, suppliers, marketing channel firms, customer markets, competitors, and publics
Marketing intermediaries  واسطه های بازاریابی Firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers; they include resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing service agencies, and financial intermediaries
Economic environment  محیط اقتصادی Factors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns
Engel’s Laws قوانین انگل Differences noted over a century ago by Ernst Engel in how people shift their spending across food, housing, transportation, health care, and other goods and services categories as family income rises
Natural environment محیط (زیست) طبیعی Natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities
Technological environment  محیط تکنولوژیک Forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities
Political environment محیط سیاسی Laws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society
Cultural environment محیط فرهنگی Institutions and other forces that affect society’s basic value perceptions, preferences, and behaviors
Consumer buyer behaviour رفتار خرید مصرف کننده The buying behavior of final consumers-individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption
Consumer market بازار مصرف All the individuals and house holds who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption
Factors of consumer behavior   عوامل رفتار مصرف کننده cultural, social, personal, psychological
Factors of customer behavior / 2 عوامل رفتار مصرف کننده environment, organisation, interpersonal relations, personal character
Motivation محرک / انگیزش / انگیزه Persons‘ impulses to take action and the internal and external forces that energies, mobilize, and direct their behavior toward goals
Perception  ادراک/ احساس/دریافت selective attention, distortion
Recall  یادآوری مجدد/بازخوانی The process of becoming aware of phenomena, whether internal or external, tangible or intangible / The process by which people select, organize, and interpret, information to form a meaningful picture of the world
Stimulus  انگیزه / محرک Anything that elicits or accelerates a physiological or psychological activity
Environmental stimuli محرک های محیطی  economical, technological, political, cultural
Stimulus-response theory نظریه محرک-پاسخ The theory which holds that organisms learn first to associate an original stimulus with another, adjacent stimulus and than to respond to that second „conditioned“ stimulus with the behaviour formerly induced by the original stimulus
Special incentives مشوق های ویژه A motivator usually used for a brief period to strengthen representatives‘ efforts to achieve specific sales goals
Factors supporting purchase  عوامل پشتیبان خرید  choice of product, brand, supplier, timing, and size
Buying centre تاثیرگذاران بر خرید The collective term for people who participate in purchase decisions
Cues  علت / دلیل / سبب The minor stimuli that shape people‘s responses and that support the original stimulus
High involvement decisions تصمیم گیری با سطح درگیری ذهنی بالا Decisions that generally involve a large sum of money, have personal relevance, demand a search for information, and produce some degree of anxiety about the correctness of the product chosen
Low involvement decisions  تصمیم گیری با سطح درگیری ذهنی پایین Decisions generally made in an instant with little or no influence from social or cultural forces
Consumer behaviour  رفتار مصرف کننده The acts of individuals that involve buying and using products, including the decision processes that precede and determine these acts
Culture  فرهنگ All the things, abilities and believe/everything that one generation of a society transmits to the next
Subcultures  خرده فرهنگ ها Groups that share the values and artifacts of the larger society but also have distinctive practices, preferences, and beliefs
Countercultures خرده فرهنگ های متضاد Subcultures whose values are in conflict with those of the wider society
Opinion leader رهبر افکار Person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts influence on others
Social class  طبقه اجتماعی / کلاس اجتماعی A category made up of people who share similar opportunities, economic positions, lifestyles, attitudes and behaviors
Group  گروه Two or more people, with related statuses and roles, who interact on the basis of shared expectations about each other‘s behavior
Ethnic group گروه اخلاقی The social group determined by culturally transmitted, learned traits
Demography جمعیت شناختی The study of the changing characteristics of human populations-factors such as vital statistics, growth, size, density, and distribution
Personality  شخصیت A person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her own environment
Motive (drive) انگیزه A need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need
Innovators نوآوران The first users of the new product
Early adopters  پذیرندگان اولیه People who try a new product early in its life cycle without waiting for its acceptance by a large number of people
Early majority گروه پذیرندگان اولیه People who adopt the product only after it has been accepted somewhat widely
Late majority  گروه پذیرندگان متاخر People who do not adopt an innovation until it is widespread use and is thoroughly accepted
Laggards عقب افتادگان / متخرین Individuals, households, or organisations that resists or never adopt the new product
Family household  خانواده A household consisting of two or more persons living together who are related by marriage or birth
Family life cycle چرخه زندگی خانوادگی Various stages in family life, each with its own characteristics
Family orientation رویکرد/ گرایش خانوادگی The family into which an individual is born; the family that dares for and socialises us as children and gives us our initial class status
Family procreation تولید/زایش/فرآوری خانوادگی The new family established by choosing a mate and rearing children
Ideal self-concept   غرور / خویش پندار / عزت نفس ایده آل A view of ourselves as we would like to be
Lifestyles سبک زندگی Preferred patterns of living as expressed in a person‘s activities, interests, and opinions, taken as a whole
Learning  یادگیری The relatively permanent changes in thought and behaviour that result from experience = Changes in an individual’s behaviour arising from experience
Belief باور / اعتقاد A descriptive thought that a person holds about something
Attitude  نحوه نگرش / طرز برخورد /گرایش A person’s consistently favourable or unfavourable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea
Complex buying behavior  رفتار پیچیده خرید Consumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior  رفتار خرید کاهشی-ناهنجار Consumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by high involvement but few perceived differences among brands
Habitual buying behavior  رفتار خرید پایدار / عادتی Consumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by low consumer involvement and few significant perceived brand differences.
Variety-seeking buying behavior رفتار خرید تنوع طلبی Consumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences
Need recognition تشخیص نیاز The first stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need
Information search جستجوی اطلاعات The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer is aroused to search for more information; the consumer may simply have heightened attention or may go into active information search
Alternative evaluation سنجش / ارزیابی جایگزین The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set
Purchase decision  تصمیم خرید The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer actually buys the product
Postpurchase behaviour رفتار پیش از خرید The stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers take further action after purchase based their satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Cognitive dissonance ناهنجاری شناختی Buyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict
New product  محصول جدید A good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new
Adoption process  فرایند پذیرش The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption
Organisational markets / Business market بازارهای سازمانی / بازار تجاری Markets which include businesses, institutions, and governments that buy products or raw materials for their own use or to make other products that they, in turn, sell /  All organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others
Organisational marketing بازاریابی سازمانی All marketing efforts directed at buyers for formal institutions, including industrial, service, reseller, government, and not-for-profit groups
Business buying process  فرانید خرید سازمانی The decision-making process by which business buyers establish the need for purchased products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers
Derived demand تقاضا مشتق شده / تقاضای ناشی شده Business demand that ultimately comes from (derives from) the demand for consumer goods
Straight rebuy  خرید مجدد مستقیم A business buying situation in which the buyer routinely reorders something without any modifications
Modified rebuy  خرید مجدد اصلاح شده A business buying situation in which the buyer wants to modify product specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers
New task  وظیفه جدید A business buying situation in which the buyer purchases a product or service for the first time
Packaging بسته بندی در مقیاس بزرگ The activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product
Systems buying سیستم های خرید Buying a packaged solution to a problem from a single seller
Users کاربرها Members of the organization who will use the product or service; users often initiate the buying proposal and help define product specifications
Influencers موثرین /  اثرگذاران People in an organization’s buying center who affect the buying decision; they often help define specifications and also provide information for evaluating alternatives
Deciders  تصمیم گیرندگان People in the organization’s buying center who have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers
Gatekeepers حافظان سازمانی People in the organization’s buying center who control the flow of information to others
Problem recognition  تشخیص مسئله / مشکل The first stage of the business buying process in which someone in the company recognizes a problem or need that can be met by acquiring a good or service
General need description شرح نیاز عمومی The stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Product specification مشخصه محصول The stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Value analysis  ارزیابی / تجزیه و تحلیل ارزش An approach to cost reduction in which components are studied carefully to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made by less costly methods of production
Supplier search جستجوی عرضه کننده The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer tries to find the best vendors

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