دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۲۰

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Functional (trade) discounts Price concessions which compensate intermediaries for providing such services as storage, handling, and selling
Functional organisation The organisation method which divides the marketing operation into groups according to their assigned tasks
Experience-curve pricing A strategy that takes into account the costs of competing firms based on their experience in producing goods
Competition-oriented pricing A strategy whereby prices are set based on what a firm’s competitors are charging
Flexible pricing Charging different prices to different customers usually based on negotiations and bargaining; it is rare but not unknown in the USA in consumer marketing, but is more prevalent in organisational marketing
Customary pricing Pricing that matches buyer’s expectations about the costs of certain items; prices reflect custom and tradition, and changes are infrequent
Fair trade The practice through which producers attempt to control the retail price of their products
Skimming A strategy that is characterised by a high initial prices and promotional expenditures; the intent is to “skim the cream” from the market before anyone else can serve it
Discretionary income The amount of personal income left after paying taxes, and after paying for necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing
Disposable income The amount of personal income left after taxes
Downward-sloping demand, the law of The law predicting that when the price of a good is raised, less of it is demanded
Upward-sloping supply, the law of The law stating that when the price of a good is raised (at the same time that all other things are held constant), more of it will be produced
Elastic demand A given percentage change in price results in a greater percentage change in the quantity Elasticity of demand = The degree to which the quantity produced and sold will increase in response to changes in price demanded
Uniform delivered pricing Freight charges are added to the base price of the product such as that all buyers pay the same price regardless of their location
Price fixing When competitors, through formal contracts or collusive actions, jointly agree upon prices
Warranty The producer’s assurance that the product will meet buyers’ expectations or that buyers will be compensated in some way if the product fails to meet expectations
Penetration Marketers set low initial prices in an attempt to capture mass markets
Price lining A manufacturer or retailer sets a limited number of prices for selected lines of products
Product line pricing Setting the price steps between various products in a product line based on cost differences between the products, customer evaluations of different features, and competitors’ prices
Optional-product pricing The pricing of optional or accessory products along with a main product
Captive-product pricing Setting a price for products that must be used along with a main product, such as blades for a razor and film for a camera
By-product pricing Setting a price for by-products in order to make the main product’s price more competitive
Product bundle pricing Combining several products and offering the bundle at a reduced price
Discounts The reduction from the list price to be paid by consumers which represents the revenue source for intermediaries
Cash discounts Price reductions given to buyers who pay for purchases within a stated period; they are not cash payments
Quantity discount A price reduction to buyers who buy large volumes
Cumulative quantity discounts A discount that applies to one buyer’s orders over a specified time-perhaps 6- or 12- month period
Functional discount A price reduction offered by the seller to trade channel members who perform certain functions such as selling, storing, and record keeping
Seasonal discounts Discounts granted to early or offseason buyers of products that have peak selling periods
Allowance Promotional money paid by manufacturers to retailers in return for an agreement to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way
Segmented pricing Selling a product or service at two or more prices, where the difference in prices is not based on differences in costs
Psychological pricing A pricing approach that considers the psychology of prices and not simply the economics; the price is used to say something about the product
Reference prices Prices that buyers carry in their minds and refer to when they look at a given product
Promotional pricing Pricing that paves the way for a good old-fashioned sale; prices of selected items are lowered in an effort to attract customers
F.O.B. Pricing F.O.B. stands for “free on board” and is followed by the designation “factory” or “destination” to indicate at what point the buyer assumes treight costs and title to the product
Uniform-delivered pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the company charges the same price plus freight to all customers, regardless of their location
Zone pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the company sets up two or more zones. All customers within a zone pay the same total price; the more distant the zone, the higher the price
Basing-point pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the seller designates some city as a basing point and charges all customers the freight cost from that city to the customer location, regardless of the city from which the goods are actually shipped
Freight-absorption pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the seller absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges in order to get the desired business
Geographic pricing Pricing decisions which account for who takes responsibility for transportation charges-the seller or the buyer
Premiums Gifts to paying customers; they are generally claimed through the mail by sending the marketer a number of proof-of-purchase labels or box tops
Patronage reward Cash or other award for the regular use of a certain company’s products or services
Cents-off coupons Coupons that offer buyers minor price reductions at the point of sale
Premium price differential The additional money consumers will pay for the augmented product
Promotional discounts Discounts for encouraging promotion and sales efforts by intermediaries
Bonus packs Special packaging that provides consumers with extra quantity of merchandise at no extra charge over the regular price
Prestige pricing When the seller internationally sets prices at levels high enough to connote an image of quality status
Multiple-unit pricing A form of promotional pricing where the product is priced for more than one unit, such “as two for one” sale
Predatory pricing The practice by which large firms set extremely low prices in an effort to undercut small competitors and drive them out of business
Price discrimination Selling the same product to different customers for different price
Non-cumulative quantity discounts Price concessions based on quantity ordered on each individual sale
Odd-even pricing The practice which assumes that consumers will perceive prices such as $9.95 as being “$۹ and something” rather than as “almost $10”.
Cost-plus pricing A strategy that assumes a basic cost per unit and then adds a mark-up to provide a margin that covers overhead costs and returns a profit
Cost/volume/profit analysis An approach which calculates the effect on profits of different prices, given different levels of demand in response to those prices
Price-off promotions A strategy that involves temporary price reductions to retailers with the intent that savings will be passed along to consumers
Non-price competition When firm’s strategy is advanced by components of the marketing mix other than price: the product itself, the distribution system, or the promotional campaign
Push money Special bonuses paid by a marketer to an intermediary’s sales force
Quantity discounts Price concessions that are based either on number of units purchased or on the total dollar amount; they are used to encourage larger orders from a single buyer
Rebates A promotional method which provides for financial returns to buyers from the manufacturer after the purchase has taken place
Cash refund offer (rebate) Offer to refund part of the purchase price of a product to consumers who send a “proof of purchase” to the manufacturer
Price pack (cents-off deal) Reduced price that is marked by the producer directly on the label or package
Self-liquidator The consumer must pay a small charge for the premium to help cover the marketer’’ expenses; if this charge completely covers a marketer’’ costs, the premium is called a self-liquidator

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