دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۳

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Proposal solicitationدرخواست پیشنهادThe stage of the business buying process in which the buyer invites qualified suppliers to submit proposals
Supplier selectionانتخاب عرضه کنندهThe stage of the business buying process in which the buyer reviews proposals and selects a supplier or suppliers
Order-routine specificationسفارش بر اساس درخواست پیشینThe stage of the business buying process in which the buyer writes the final order with the chosen supplier(s), listing technical specifications, quantity needed, expected time of delivery, return policies, and warranties
Performance reviewبررسی عملکردThe stage of the business buying process in which the buyer rates its satisfaction with suppliers, deciding whether to continue, modify or drop them
Institutional marketبازار سازمانیSchool, hospitals, nursing homes, prisons and other institutions that provide goods and services to people in their care
Government marketبازار دولتیGovernment units-federal, state, and local-that purchase or rent goods and services for carrying out the main functions of government
Organisational buying behaviourرفتار خرید سازمانیThe decision making process by which a buying group establishes the need for goods and services and identifies, evaluates and chooses among alternative brands and suppliers
Customer profile مشخصات مشتریA written record of an account, including information such as type of business, buying influences, the product mix, buying policies and practices, environmental influences, purchase criteria, and competitor analysis
Customer types organisationسازمان بر انواع مشتریThe organisation method which is based on customer groups, such as departments responsible for marketing to each segment
Buy-phase conceptمفهوم فاز خریدThe concept that views organisational purchasing as a series of sequential steps proceeding from recognition of a need through evaluation of the product‘s performance in satisfying that need
Merchant wholesalersعمده فروشان تجاریOrganisations which take title to goods, and which carry the responsibility for risk bearing and usually for performing various functions
Missionary sales peopleفروشندگان مبلغPeople who perform such diverse tasks as building the organisation‘s image, cultivating relations with decision makers, giving away free samples, and presenting in-depth information about the product
Commercialisationتجاری سازی – در زبان فرانسه: بازاریابیA process in which marketers establish full-scale production, set prices, lay out a distribution network, and make final promotion plans to introduce the product in all its markets
Distribution forms of goods; shops and channelsاشکال توزیع کالاها : مغازه ها و شبکه هایSpecial, shopping, convenience; intensive, exclusive, selective
Marketing information system سیستم اطلاعات بازاریابیPeople, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze. evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers
Marketing intelligenceهوشمندی بازاریابیEveryday information about developments in the marketing environment that helps managers prepare and adjust marketing plans
Marketing research تحقیقات بازاریابیThe systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization/ The systematic and objective research for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing
Exploratory research تحقیق اکتشافیResearch that consists of informal attempts to identify and define problems
Descriptive researchتحقیق پژوهشیMarketing research to better describe marketing problems, situations, or markets, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers
Causal research تحقیق علیMarketing research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationship
Threshold effectاثر آستانهThe concept that very few calls on any account tend not to have any effect on sales until the level of calls reaches a certain level
Qualitative research تحقیق کیفیResearch which takes the form of detailed interviews with a small number of consumers or organisational buyers
Stimulated test marketingبازاریابی بر اساس آزمون تحریک مخاطبAn approach to new-product testing that does not involve the actual marketing of a new product in test sites as in the traditional test marketing, but uses special consumer reaction research instead
Quantitative research تحقیق کمیResearch based on a statistically valid sampling of a target market
Secondary dataداده ثانویهFacts previously collected by others, often for other purpose
Primary dataداده اولیهInformation collected for the specific purpose at hand
Observational research تحقیق بر اساس مشاهدهThe gathering of primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations
Single-source data systems سیستم داده تک منبعElectronic monitoring systems that link consumers’ exposure to television advertising and promotion (measured using television meters) with what they buy in stores (measured using store checkout scanners)
Survey researchتحقیق مطالعه محورThe gathering of primary data by asking people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behaviour
Experimental researchتحقیق تجربیThe gathering of primary data by selecting matched groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses

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