دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۴

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Focus group interviewing  مصاحبه گروه کانونی Personal interviewing that involves inviting six to ten people to gather for a few hours with a trained interviewer to talk about a product, service, or organization
Online (Internet) marketing research تحقیقات اینترنتی / آنلاین بازاریابی Collecting primary data through Internet surveys and online focus groups
Screening process  فرآیند غربالگری The process which sifts out all ideas that are not feasible or desirable for organisation
Sample نمونه A trial amount of a product
Quota sample  نمونه سهمیه A sample selected by giving the interviewer a quota of certain number of individuals with some specific characteristic, such as a quota to interview 50 men and 50 women
Simple random sample نمونه تصادفی ساده The process in which individual members of a population would have an equal and known chance of being selected as part of a sample
Systematic random sample نمونهتصادفی سیستماتیک The process in which researchers choose every nth (such as every tenth or fifteenth) number after starting with a randomly selected number
Stratified random sample  نمونه تصادفی طبقه بندی شده A process that entails breaking the total population into strata, such as by age groups or income levels, in order to select samples within strata
Convenience sample نمونه به اندازه کافی مناسب A sample chosen at the convenience of the researcher, such as the first 100 individuals to be found who are members of a population
Judgement sample نمونه داوری A sample chosen simply by the judgement of the researcher as to which individuals would be representative of the population, and about which no statistical analyses would be appropriate
Single-person household زندگی انفرادی در یک خانه An individual who lives alone in a separate residence
Survey method  روش تحقیق A research method based on data gathered by asking respondents to supply facts, opinions, or other information
Questionnaire پرسشنامه A data collection instrument that is used for all survey methods
Structured questions سوالات ساختاریافته Those questions that demand brief and specific answers
Unstructured question سوالات ساختارنیافته Questions that allow respondents a great deal of freedom and creativity in framing answers
Semi-structured question سوالت نیمه ساختاریافته Questions that include sentence completion items and word association tests
Statistical demand analysis  تجزیه و تحلیل آماری تقاضا Analysis that develops relationship among marketing mix factors and environmental circumstances and sales
Marketing research department (agency) بخش / آژانس تحقیقات بازاریابی The organisation within an advertising agency which researches consumer attitudes for the client, performs demographic studies, tests the effectiveness of advertising copy or packaging, or conducts research for agency itself
Syndicated research services خدمات پژوهش موازی / همزمان The scheduled reports which spell out what consumers are buying and what is happening to a product in the market place
Affect referral decision rule قانون تصمیم مرجع اثر A type of decision rule where selections are made on the basis of overall impressions or affective summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
Alpha activity  فعالیت آلفا A measure of the degree of brain activity that can be used to assess an individual’s reactions to an advertisement
۸۰/۲۰ rule قانون ۸۰/۲۰ The principle that 80 percent of sales volume for a product or service is generated by 20 percent of the customers
Contribution margin محدوده مشارکت The difference between the total revenue generated by a product of brand and its total variable costs
Theatre tests آزمون تئاتر An expensive method of judging the effectiveness of television commercials. Consumers groups are brought into theatres, supposedly to see pilots of forthcoming television series. They are asked their opinions not only of the pilots but also of the impact and effectiveness of commercials
Time series analysis تحلیل سریهای زمانی Analysis that identifies and measures repetitive influences on sales patterns over time
Value analysis تحلیل ارزش A cost-reduction program in which customers study each component of a supplier’s product to determine whether it can be redesigned, standardised, or produced more cheaply
Vendor analysis  تحلیل تامین کننده / فروشنده The buying organisation’s systematic evaluation and rating of prospective suppliers
Work load analysis  تحلیل حجم کار A method which establishes standards for the number of sales calls required and the time needed to make those calls
Contests  مسابقه Strategy that requires consumers to compete for prizes, typically by completing some type of puzzle or stating why they like the product “in 25 words or less”
Cross-tabulation  جدول بندی متقاطع The method of comparing the responses to one question with the responses to another
Delphi technique تکنیک دلفی The procedure of environmental forecasting by a group of experts who are solicited anonymously and asked to predict the likelihood and time of occurrence of significant events
Experimental method تکنیک تجربی The method based on the study of the relationship between two or more variables under controlled conditions
Focus group گروه کانونی A small number of ‘typical’ consumers who discuss their reactions to a product concept in the presence of a group leader
Forecasting  پیش بینی The prediction of what buyers in a target market are likely to do under a given set of conditions, such as the prediction of how much of a product will be purchased by a particular market segment given a particular price of the product
Historical and quantitative forecasts پیشی بینی کمی و تاریخی A projection of future sales based on sales patterns and/or mathematical calculations
Judgement forecast پیش بینی از روی قضاوت The prediction rely upon the opinions of informed participants or outside consultants
Audiometer  شنوایی سنج An electric measurement device that is hooked to a television set to record when the set is turned on and the channel to which it is tuned
Benchmark measures معیارهای محک Measures of a target audience’s status concerning response hierarchy variables such as awareness, knowledge, image, attitudes, preferences, intentions, or behaviour. These measures are taken at the beginning of an advertising or promotional campaign to determine the degree to which a target audience must be changed or moved by a promotional campaign
Prospecting  دورنما A systematic process of identifying new buyers
Irregular events وقایع بدون ساختار منظم Random events such as acts of God (e.g. earthquakes, fires, floods)./ Windfall sales contracts
Consumer juries داوران مصرف کننده A method of pretesting advertisements by using a panel of consumers who are representative of the target audience and provide ratings, rankings, and/or evaluations of advertisements

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