دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۷

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Functional accounts حسابهای عملکردی Accounting units which divide expenditures according to their purpose
Functional (trade) discounts  تخفیفات تجاری/عملکردی Price concessions which compensate intermediaries for providing such services as storage, handling, and selling
Functional organisation سازمان کارکردی The organisation method which divides the marketing operation into groups according to their assigned tasks
Experience-curve pricing قیمتگذاری بر اساس منحنی تجربه A strategy that takes into account the costs of competing firms based on their experience in producing goods
Flexible pricing  قیمتگذاری منعطف Charging different prices to different customers usually based on negotiations and bargaining; it is rare but not unknown in the USA in consumer marketing, but is more prevalent in organisational marketing
Customary pricing قیمت گذاری متداول Pricing that matches buyer’s expectations about the costs of certain items; prices reflect custom and tradition, and changes are infrequent
Fair trade کسب و کار عادلانه / تجارت مشروع The practice through which producers attempt to control the retail price of their products
Skimming برداشت سریع  پول از بازار /خامه کشی A strategy that is characterized by a high initial prices and promotional expenditures; the intent is to “skim the cream” from the market before anyone else can serve it
Discretionary income درامد احتیاطی / مازاد درامد پس از کسر اولویتهای پرداختی The amount of personal income left after paying taxes, and after paying for necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing
Disposable income درآمد در دسترس The amount of personal income left after taxes
Downward-sloping demand, the law of  قانون شیب نزولی تقاضا The law predicting that when the price of a good is raised , less of it is demanded
Upward-sloping supply, the law of  قانون شیب صعودی عرضه The law stating that when the price of a good is raised (at the same time that all other things are held constant), more of it will be produced
Elastic demand کشش تقاضا A given percentage change in price results in a greater percentage change in the quantity Elasticity of demand / The degree to which the quantity produced and sold will increase in response to changes in price demanded
Uniform delivered pricing  قیمتگذاری بر اساس هزینه تحویل Freight charges are added to the base price of the product such as that all buyers pay the same price regardless of their location
Price fixing  تثبیت قیمت When competitors, through formal contracts or collusive actions, jointly agree upon prices
Warranty  وارانتی The producer’s assurance that the product will meet buyers’ expectations or that buyers will be compensated in some way if the product fails to meet expectations
Penetration  نفوذ Marketers set low initial prices in an attempt to capture mass markets
Price lining قیمتگذاری در خط تولید A manufacturer or retailer sets a limited number of prices for selected lines of products
Product line pricing  قیمتگذاری خط محصول Setting the price steps between various products in a product line based on cost differences between the products, customer evaluations of different features, and competitors’ prices
Optional-product pricing  قیمتگذاری انتخابی محصول The pricing of optional or accessory products along with a main product
Captive-product pricing  قیمتگذاری اجباری – ناخواسته محصول Setting a price for products that must be used along with a main product, such as blades for a razor and film for a camera
By-product pricing  قیمتگذاری  محصول فرعی- جانبی Setting a price for by-products in order to make the main product’s price more competitive
Product bundle pricing  قیمتگذاری سبدکالا Combining several products and offering the bundle at a reduced price
Discounts  تخفیف The reduction from the list price to be paid by consumers which represents the revenue source for intermediaries
Cash discounts  تخفیفات نقدی Price reductions given to buyers who pay for purchases within a stated period; they are not cash payments
Quantity discount  تخفیف مقداری A price reduction to buyers who buy large volumes
Cumulative quantity discounts  تخفیف تجمیعی /تخفیف روی کل میزان خرید A discount that applies to one buyer’s orders over a specified time-perhaps 6- or 12- month period
Functional discount  تخفیف عملکردی A price reduction offered by the seller to trade channel members who perform certain functions such as selling, storing, and record keeping
Seasonal discounts  تخفیفات فصلی Discounts granted to early or off-season buyers of products that have peak selling periods
Allowance  مستمری Promotional money paid by manufacturers to retailers in return for an agreement to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way
Segmented pricing دسته بندی قیمتی Selling a product or service at two or more prices, where the difference in prices is not based on differences in costs
Psychological pricing  قیمتگذاری روانی A pricing approach that considers the psychology of prices and not simply the economics; the price is used to say something about the product
Reference prices  قیمت مرجع Prices that buyers carry in their minds and refer to when they look at a given product
Promotional pricing  قیمتگذاری مرتفیعی Pricing that paves the way for a good old-fashioned sale; prices of selected items are lowered in an effort to attract customers
F.O.B. Pricing  قیمتگذاری بر  اساس محصول روی عرشه کشتی F.O.B. stands for “free on board” and is followed by the designation “factory” or “destination” to indicate at what point the buyer assumes freight costs and title to the product
Uniform-delivered pricing  قیمتگذاری بر اساس هزینه حمل و انبارداری / قیمتگذاری رویه ثابت تحویل A geographical pricing strategy in which the company charges the same price plus freight to all customers, regardless of their location
Zone pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the company sets up two or more zones. All customers within a zone pay the same total price; the more distant the zone, the higher the price
Basing-point pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the seller designates some city as a basing point and charges all customers the freight cost from that city to the customer location, regardless of the city from which the goods are actually shipped
Freight-absorption pricing A geographical pricing strategy in which the seller absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges in order to get the desired business
Geografic pricing Pricing decisions which account for who takes responsibility for transportation charges-the seller or the buyer
Premiums Gifts to paying customers; they are generally claimed through the mail by sending the marketer a number of proof-of-purchase labels or box tops
Patronage reward Cash or other award for the regular use of a certain company’s products or services
Cents-off coupons Coupons that offer buyers minor price reductions at the point of sale
Premium price differential The additional money consumers will pay for the augmented product
Promotional discounts Discounts for encouraging promotion and sales efforts by intermediaries
Bonus packs Special packaging that provides consumers with extra quantity of merchandise at no extra charge over the regular price
Prestige pricing When the seller internationally sets prices at levels high enough to connote an image of quality status
Multiple-unit pricing A form of promotional pricing where the product is priced for more than one unit, such “as two for one” sale
Predatory pricing The practice by which large firms set extremely low prices in an effort to undercut small competitors and drive them out of business
Price discrimination Selling the same product to different customers for different price
Non-cumulative quantity discounts Price concessions based on quantity ordered on each individual sale

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