دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۸

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰

Odd-even pricing  قیمتگذاری غیرمعمول The practice which assumes that consumers will perceive prices such as $40.95 as being “$۴۰ and something” rather than as “almost $50”.
Cost-plus pricing  قیمتگذاری افزون بر هزینه، قیمت‌گذاری بالاتر از هزینه، روش قیمت اضافه بر بهای اصل A strategy that assumes a basic cost per unit and then adds a markup to provide a margin that covers overhead costs and returns a profit
Cost/volume/profit analysis  هزینه / حجم / تجزیه و تحلیل سود An approach which calculates the effect on profits of different prices, given different levels of demand in response to those prices
Price-off promotions  ترفیع فروش با کاهش قیمت A strategy that involves temporary price reductions to retailers with the intent that savings will be passed along to consumers
Non-price competition  رقابت غیر قیمتی When firm’s strategy is advanced by components of the marketing mix other than price: the product itself, the distribution system, or the promotional campaign
Push money  پول فشار – پرداخت به واسط Special bonuses paid by a marketer to an intermediary’s sales force
Quantity discounts  تخفیفات مقداری Price concessions that are based either on number of units purchased or on the total dollar amount; they are used to encourage larger orders from a single buyer
Rebates  تخفیفات بعد از فروش A promotional method which provides for financial returns to buyers from the manufacturer after the purchase has taken place
Cash refund offer (rebate)  بازپرداخت نقدی ارائه شده پس از خرید Offer to refund part of the purchase price of a product to consumers who send a “proof of purchase” to the manufacturer
Price pack (cents-off deal)  کاهش قیمت مندرج بر لیبل Reduced price that is marked by the producer directly on the label or package
Self-liquidator  پرداخت کوچک در ازای بهترین کالا یا خدمات The consumer must pay a small charge for the premium to help cover the marketer’’ expenses; if this charge completely covers a marketer’’ costs, the premium is called a self-liquidator
Distribution channel  کانال توزیع A set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user
Channel level  سطوح کانال A layer of intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer
Direct marketing channel  کانال بازاریابی مستقیم A marketing channel that has no intermediary levels
Indirect marketing channel  کانال بازاریابی غیرمستقیم Channel containing one or more intermediary levels
Channel conflict  تعارض کانال Disagreement among marketing channel members on goals and roles—who should do what and for what rewards
Conventional distribution channel  کانال توزیع متعارف A channel consisting of one or more independent producers, wholesalers, and retailers, each a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits even at the expense of profits for the system as a whole
Vertical marketing system (VMS)  سیستم بازاریابی عمودی A distribution channel structure in which producers, wholesales, and retailers act as a unified system. One channel member owns the others, has contracts with them, or has so much power that they all cooperate
Corporate VMS سیستم بازاریابی عمودی ترکیبی با مالکیت مشترک A vertical marketing system that combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership—channel leadership is established through common ownership
Administered VMS  سیستم بازاریابی عمودی ترکیبی با مدیریت واحد A vertical marketing system that coordinates successive stages of production and distribution, not through common ownership or contractual ties but through the size and power of one of the parties
Horizontal marketing system  سیستم بازاریابی افقی A channel arrangement in which two or more companies at one level join together to follow a new marketing opportunity
Hybrid marketing channel  کانال بازاریابی ترکیبی Multi-channel distribution system in which a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments
Disintermediation  حذف واسط The elimination of a layer of intermediaries from a marketing channel or the displacement of traditional resellers by radically new types of intermediaries
Intensive distribution  توزیع فشرده Stocking the product in as many outlets as possible
Exclusive distribution  توزیع انحصاری Giving a limited number of dealers the exclusive right to distribute the company’s products in their territories
Selective distribution  توزیع انتخابی The use of more than one, but fewer than all, of the intermediaries who are willing to carry the company’s products
Intermodal transportation  حمل و نقل چند وجهی Combining two or more modes of transportation
Integrated logistics management  مدیریت تدارکات/پشتیبانی یکپارچه The logistics concept that emphasizes teamwork, both inside the company and among all the marketing channel organizations, to maximize the performance of the entire distribution system
Third-party logistics provider  ارائه دهنده خدمات پشتیانی توسط طرف سوم An independent logistics provider that performs any or all of the functions required to get their clients’ product to market
Transit time  زمان انتقال / ارسال The time from receipt of the order to delivery of the goods
Combined transportation modes  حالت حمل و نقل ترکیبی A transportation method which utilities more than one type of carrier
Vertical conflict  تعارض عمودی The conflict which occurs between members above and below each other in the distribution channel-between the manufacturer and intermediaries, or between intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers
Horizontal conflict  تعارض افقی The conflict which arises between wholesalers and retailers of the same level and type in a channel
Intertype conflict  تعارض درون شبکه توزیع The conflict which occurs when different kinds of intermediaries are part of the distribution channel
Conflict resolution  حل تعارض Accommodation of various channel members to decisions designed to promote the overall goals of the distribution channel
Horizontal integration  ادغام افقی The process which brings together a number of channel members at the same level and puts them under single ownership
Place utility  کاربرد/ فایده مکانی The usefulness gained when something of value is received where it is wanted
Retailing  خرده فروشی All activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal, non-business use
Specialty store  فروشگاه تخصصی A retail store that carries a narrow product line with a deep assortment within that line
Supplies  تدارکات Items that are not incorporated into the buying organisation’s products;goods needed to keep everyday operations going
Supply  عرضه A relation showing the various amounts of a commodity that a seller would be willing and able to make available for sale at possible alternative prices during a given period of time, all other things remaining the same
Distribution channels  کانال های توزیع Channels that are made up of manufacturers or service producers and wholesalers and retailers through which products are marketed to consumers and organisational buyers
Channel length  طول کانال The number of levels in a distribution channel
Channel strategy  استراتژی کانال Decisions which center on choosing and attracting the most effective types and the most efficient number of distributors in the best geographical locations
Channel width  عرض کانال The number of intermediaries found at the same level in the channel

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰