دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۹

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Direct channels  کانال های مستقیم The channels in which producers sell directly to final buyers; no intermediaries are involved
Multiple channels  کانال های چندگانه Channels which include different kinds of intermediaries at the same level
Voluntary chains  زنجیره داوطلبانه Wholesaler-sponsored organisations of independent retailers who practice bulk buying and similar merchandising techniques
Procurement costs  هزینه های خرید Inventory expenses that arise from the ordering process itself
Selective demand  تقاضای انتخابی A preference among buyers for specific brands
Selective distribution  توزیع انتخابی A systém in which only a certain number of intermediaries, or those of o certain type, are chosen to distribute the product
Position  جایگاه A product’s category and its relative standing within that category
Category development index (CDI)  شاخص توسعه طبقه/رده An index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a product category’s total sales that occur in a given market area as compared to the percentage of the total population on the market
Category management  مدیریت طبقه‌بندی An organisational system whereby managers have responsibility for the marketing programs for a particular category or line of products
Product category organisation  سازمان طبقه‌بندی محصول The organisation method that assigns marketing tasks by product category or brand
Slotting fees  بهای فضای قفسه Payments demanded by retailers before they will accept new products and find “slots” for them on the shelves
City zone  منطقه شهری A category used for newspaper circulation figures that refers to a market area composed of the city where paper is published and contiguous areas similar in character to the city
Product line exclusivity  خط تولید انحصاری An agreement that the agency will not work on a competing product for the duration of the relationship
Polarity retailing  خرده فروشی دو قطبی The concept stating that the successful forms of retailing is at the extremes; either the large mass merchandisers with highly efficient operations, or the very small “boutique” retailers with a very deep line of merchandise in a very limited product line
Multilevel Merchandiser  تجارت (بازارپردازی) چندوجهی Those corporate retail chains which, by dint of size, have integrated backward and have achieved strong control over (if not ownership of) their wholesalers as well as their manufacturers
Cease and desist order  توقف و لغو سفارش An action by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission that orders a company to stop engaging in a practice that is considered deceptive or misleading until a hearing is held
Corrective Advertising  تبلیغ اصلاحی An action by Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser can be required to run advertising messages designed to remedy the deception or misleading impression created by its pprevious advertising
Reseller markets بازارهای فروش مجدد محصولات از طریق نمایندگان فروش Firms that acquire goods and services in order to sell them again
Special sales representatives نمایندگان فروش ویژه People who promote the product directly to those who purchase it, to intermediaries, or to those who recommend it, but who do not actually take orders
Retailers  خرده فروشان Merchants whose main business is selling directly to ultimate consumers
Wheel of retailing concept  چرخه مفهوم خرده فروشی A concept of retailing that states that new types of retailers usually begin as low-margin, low-price, low-status operations but later evolve into higher-priced, higher-service operations, eventually becoming like the conventional retailers they replaced
Retailer co-operatives  همکاری در خرده فروشی Centralized buying organisations set up by retailers themselves
Convenience stores  فروشگاههای رفاه ۲۴ ساعته Stores featuring convenience: long store hours (often 24 hours each day), ease of access, and quick shopping for items such as bread, milk, eggs, cigarettes, and newspapers
Off-price retailers  پایینتر از قیمت خرده فروشی Stores that differ from other discounters in that they feature, almost exclusively, name-brand and designer label apparel at prices significantly below those in department and specialty stores
Straight commission  کمیسیون مستقیم A financial incentive based solely on sales results; each increment of sales increases the commission
Scrambled merchandising  فروش اجناس ناجور / نامرتبط The contemporary practice among retailers of expanding their product lines beyond those traditionally carried, leading to competition between types of retailers
Supermarkets  سوپرمارکت Self-selection stores that sell a complete range of food and other items from various departments
Superstores  فروشگاه بزرگ Stores that go well beyond combination stores by carrying such nonfood items as garden supplies, alcoholic beverages, books, housewares, and hardware
Urban shopping malls  مرکز خرید بزرگ شهری Collections of shops and department stores located in or near central business districts
Shopping center  مرکز خرید A group of commercial establishments planned, developed, owned, and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade area that it services, and providing on-site parking in definite relationships to the types and sizes of stores it contains
Full-service retailers  خرده فروشان با سرویس کامل Specialty shops, boutiques, and top-of-the-line department stores
Department stores  فروشگاه خیلی بزرگ و بسیار متنوع Stores characterized by wide and deep product mixes; individual departments within store; mid- to upper-level prices; and extensive services
Discount houses   فروشگاه خیلی بزرگ با قیمتها نازل Stores that are much like department stores except that their primary appeal is low price
Discount store  فروشگاه تخفیفی A retail institution that sells standard merchandise at lower prices by accepting lower margins and selling at higher volume
Hypermarket  هایپر مارکت A very large store (80.000 square feet and up) that adds furniture, appliances, and clothing to the items found in superstores
Specialty stores  فروشگاه تخصصی Stores characterized by narrow product mixes with deep product lines, a high level of personal services, and relatively high prices
Category killer  فروشگاه تخصصی تخفیفی Giant specialty store that carries a very deep assortment of a particular line and is staffed by knowledgeable employees
Convenience store  فروشگاه رفاه کوچک۲۴ ساعت A small store, located near a residential area, that is open long hours seven days a week and carries a limited line of high-turnover convenience goods
Combination store  فروشگاه ترکیبی Store that carry over-the-counter and prescription drugs in addition to food items
Self-selection retailers  خرده فروشان خود انتخاب Stores that provide few services or sales personnel and sell mostly staples and homogeneous shopping goods

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