دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۰

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰

Off-price retailer قیمت فروش پایینتر از قیمت خرده فروشیRetailer that buys at less-than-regular wholesale prices and sells at less than retail
Independent off-price retailerخرده فروش مستقلOff-price retailer that is either owned and run by entrepreneurs or is division of larger retail corporation
Factory outletفروشگاه عرضه مستقیم

( از تولید به مصرف )

Off-price retailing operation that is owned and operated by a manufacturer and that normally carries the manufacturer’s surplus, discontinued, or irregular goods
Warehouse clubفروش با تخفیف به مشتریان عضو کلاب مشتریانOff-price retailer that sells a limited selection of brand name grocery items, appliances, clothing, and a hodgepodge of other goods at deep discounts to members who pay annual membership fees
Chain storeفروشگاه زنجیره‌ایTwo or more outlets that are owned and controlled in common, have central buying and merchandising, and sell similar lines of merchandise
Franchiseحق امتیاز بهره برداری

( فرانچایز )

A contractual association between a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service organization (a franchiser) and independent businesspeople (franchisees) who buy the right to own and operate one or more units in the franchise system
Franchisorارائه کننده حق امتیاز بهره برداریSuppliers of products and management and marketing expertise that grant franchisees (dealers) the right to run a chain-like retailing establishments in return for fee and royalty arrangements
Franchise organizationشرکت ارائه دهنده حق امتیاز بهره برداریA contractual vertical marketing system in which a channel member, called a franchiser, links several stages in the production-distribution process
In-home retailingفروش محصول در کنار خط تولیدSelling that usually takes the form of a small party given by a hostess or host to allow friends and neighbours to examine and order a product line
District sales managerمدیر فروش منطقه‌ایA line executive who plans, directs, and controls the activities of field salespeople
Central business districtمحدوده تجاریAreas where many retailers are clustered together to take advantage of each other’s traffic
Warehouse showroomنمایشگاه درون انبارStores that are located on low-rent, suburban sites, and focus on medium-priced furniture and appliances
Limited-service retailerخرده فروشی غیر همگونSome department store chains and limited-line stores that concentrate on heterogeneous shopping products
Wholesalingعمده فروشیAll activities involved in selling goods and services to those buying for resale or business use
Wholesalerعمده فروشOrganisations which buy products from producers or other wholesalers and resell them to retailers or organisational buyers, or to other wholesalers
Limited-service wholesalerعمده فروشی محدودWholesalers who perform only selected functions
Full-service wholesalerعمده فروش نامحدودOrganisations which provide almost all the functions of intermediaries and generally are divided into three subgroups: general merchandise wholesalers, single-line wholesalers, and specialty wholesalers
General merchandise wholesalerتاجر عمده کالای عمومیWholesaler who handle a broad range of products, from food and drug items to plumbing supplies and automotive accessories
Merchant wholesalerتاجر عمده فروشIndependently owned business that takes title to the merchandise it handles
Sorting outسورت / طبقه‌بندی

رده‌بندی

The process by which wholesalers and retailers separate quantities of products into sizes, colours, quality grades, and so on
Cash-and-carry wholesalerعمده فروشی تحفیفی بدون حملWholesalers who emphasise reduced costs for small retailers, but do not provide credit or delivery
Specialty wholesalerعمده فروش تخصصیWholesalers who have the most restricted inventories, focusing on items such as health foods or electric motors
Truck wholesalerعمده فروشی با حملWholesalers who pick up quantities of products at commercial markets and deliver them to retailers in case lots
Drop shippersارسال مستقیم از تولید کننده به مصرف کننده از طریق یک واسطOrganisations which take bulk orders from industrial users, other wholesalers, or retailers; they then order the desired products from manufacturers, who ship directly to the customers
Non-store retailingخرده فروشی در خارج از فروشگاهRetailing that may be conducted impersonally (through catalogues, direct mail, and vending machines) or personally (door-to-door selling, in-home retailing, and telephone sales)
Door-to-door sellingفروش درب منزلA form of direct marketing which involves personal selling to individuals in their homes
Direct marketingبازاریابی مستقیم۱: A form of nonstore retailing in which a promotional message is delivered directly to potential customers, who respond directly to the company rather than through a traditional point of sale such as store. 2: Nonstore sales to consumers and organisational buyers via mail and telephone. 3: Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response, and cultivate lasting customer relationships
Cost per customer purchasingهزینه خرید به ازای هر مشتریA cost effectiveness measure used in direct marketing based on the cost per sale generated
Professional sales representativeنماینده فروش حرفه ایTerritory managers whose primary task is persuasive and creative face-to-face selling and account management
Agents (brokers)نمایندگان – کارگزارانIntermediaries who help bring manufacturers and retailers together and arrange sales for a commission payment; they do not také legal title to products
BrokerکارگزارA wholesaler who does not take title to goods and whose function is to bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiation
Selling agentنماینده فروشAgents who distribute the entire output of a manufacturer
Commission merchantکمیسیون تجاریMerchants who receive goods on consignment from producers, také the merchandise to a central market, sell at the best price possible, deduct their commission, and remit the balance to the producer
Freight forwardersارسال کننده کالاAgencies which provide a combining service by which partial shipments (usually under 500 pounds) are assembled from several customers
Industrial sales peopleفروشنده صنعتیPeople who sell goods and services used for producing other goods or for rendering other services
Manufacturer’s sales branches and officesدفاتر و نمایندگتان فروش تولید کنندگانWholesaling by sellers or buyers themselves rather than through independent wholesalers
Vending machineدستگاه فروش خودکارA form of non-store, non-personal selling which takes to the extreme the transaction between consumer and machine
String streetمسیر فروشMajor thoroughfares along which are found random collections of almost every kind of store
Support personnel نیروی پشتیبانPeople who aid efforts of professional sales representatives and order takers
Tying contractخرید محصول به شرط خرید محصول دیگرAn agreement between a supplier and an intermediary which requires the intermediary to buy product B in order to also get product A
Common carriersحمل کننده مسئولThose transportation providers which offer their services for the use of others, and are under certain governmental regulations concerning the provision of such services
Vertical marketing systemsسیستم های بازاریابی عمودیA system in which the functions of members at different levels in the distribution channel have been integrated under the ownership or influence of one member in order to set shared goals and to achieve effective performance
Backward integrationادغام رو به عقبThe approach by which the intermediaries acquire control over manufacturers
Forward integrationادغام رو به جلوThe approach in which the manufacturers acquire control over wholesalers and retailers

۱    ۲    ۳    ۴    ۵    ۶    ۷    ۸    ۹    ۱۰    ۱۱    ۱۲    ۱۳    ۱۴    ۱۵    ۱۶     ۱۷    ۱۸    ۱۹    ۲۰

Call Now