دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۰

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Off-price retailer قیمت فروش پایینتر از قیمت خرده فروشیRetailer that buys at less-than-regular wholesale prices and sells at less than retail
Independent off-price retailerOff-price retailer that is either owned and run by entrepreneurs or is division of larger retail corporation
Factory outletOff-price retailing operation that is owned and operated by a manufacturer and that normally carries the manufacturer’s surplus, discontinued, or irregular goods
Warehouse clubOff-price retailer that sells a limited selection of brand name grocery items, appliances, clothing, and a hodgepodge of other goods at deep discounts to members who pay annual membership fees
Chain storesTwo or more outlets that are owned and controlled in common, have central buying and merchandising, and sell similar lines of merchandise
FranchiseA contractual association between a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service organization (a franchiser) and independent businesspeople (franchisees) who buy the right to own and operate one or more units in the franchise system
FranchisorSuppliers of products and management and marketing expertise that grant franchisees (dealers) the right to run a chain-like retailing establishments in return for fee and royalty arrangements
Franchise organizationA contractual vertical marketing system in which a channel member, called a franchiser, links several stages in the production-distribution process
In-home retailingSelling that usually takes the form of a small party given by a hostess or host to allow friends and neighbours to examine and order a product line
District sales managerA line executive who plans, directs, and controls the activities of field salespeople
Central business districtsAreas where many retailers are clustered together to také advantage of each other’s traffic
Warehouse showroomsStores that are located on low-rent, suburban sites, and focus on medium-priced furniture and appliances
Limited-service retailersSome department store chains and limited-line stores that concentrate on heterogeneous shopping products
WholesalingAll activities involved in selling goods and services to those buying for resale or business use
WholesalerOrganisations which buy products from producers or other wholesalers and resell them to retailers or organisational buyers, or to other wholesalers
Limited-service wholesalersWholesalers who perform only selected functions
Full-service wholesalersOrganisations which provide almost all the functions of intermediaries and generally are divided into three subgroups: general merchandise wholesalers, single-line wholesalers, and specialty wholesalers
General merchandise wholesalersWholesaler who handle a broad range of products, from food and drug items to plumbing supplies and automotive accessories
Merchant wholesalerIndependently owned business that takes title to the merchandise it handles
Sorting outThe process by which wholesalers and retailers separate quantities of products into sizes, colours, quality grades, and so on
Cash-and-carry wholesalersWholesalers who emphasise reduced costs for small retailers, but do not provide credit or delivery
Specialty wholesalersWholesalers who have the most restricted inventories, focusing on items such as health foods or electric motors
Truck wholesalersWholesalers who pick up quantities of products at commercial markets and deliver them to retailers in case lots
Drop shippersOrganisations which take bulk orders from industrial users, other wholesalers, or retailers; they then order the desired products from manufacturers, who ship directly to the customers
Non-store retailingRetailing that may be conducted impersonally (through catalogues, direct mail, and vending machines) or personally (door-to-door selling, in-home retailing, and telephone sales)
Door-to-door sellingA form of direct marketing which involves personal selling to individuals in their homes
Direct marketing۱: A form of nonstore retailing in which a promotional message is delivered directly to potential customers, who respond directly to the company rather than through a traditional point of sale such as store. 2: Nonstore sales to consumers and organisational buyers via mail and telephone. 3: Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response, and cultivate lasting customer relationships
Cost per customer purchasingA cost effectiveness measure used in direct marketing based on the cost per sale generated
Professional sales representativesTerritory managers whose primary task is persuasive and creative face-to-face selling and account management
Agents (brokers)Intermediaries who help bring manufacturers and retailers together and arrange sales for a commission payment; they do not také legal title to products
BrokerA wholesaler who does not take title to goods and whose function is to bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiation
Selling agentsAgents who distribute the entire output of a manufacturer
Commission merchantsMerchants who receive goods on consignment from producers, také the merchandise to a central market, sell at the best price possible, deduct their commission, and remit the balance to the producer
Freight forwardersAgencies which provide a combining service by which partial shipments (usually under 500 pounds) are assembled from several customers
Industrial sales peoplePeople who sell goods and services used for producing other goods or for rendering other services
Manufacturer’s sales branches and officesWholesaling by sellers or buyers themselves rather than through independent wholesalers
Vending machinesA form of non-store, non-personal selling which takes to the extreme the transaction between consumer and machine
String streetsMajor thoroughfares along which are found random collections of almost every kind of store
Support personnelPeople who aid efforts of professional sales representatives and order takers
Tying contractAn agreement between a supplier and an intermediary which requires the intermediary to buy product B in order to also get product A
Common carriersThose transportation providers which offer their services for the use of others, and are under certain governmental regulations concerning the provision of such services
Vertical marketing systemsA system in which the functions of members at different levels in the distribution channel have been integrated under the ownership or influence of one member in order to set shared goals and to achieve effective performance
Backward integrationThe approach by which the intermediaries acquire control over manufacturers
Forward integrationThe approach in which the manufacturers acquire control over wholesalers and retailers

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