دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۱۵

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Formal sales trainingA process used to give new salespeople product knowledge, skill in selling, information about markets and competition, and guidance on company policies and practices
CloseObtaining the commitment of the prospect in a personal selling transaction
Consumer-franchise-building promotionsSales promotion activities that communicate distinctive brand attributes and contribute to the development and reinforcement of brand identity
Direct-mail marketingDirect marketing through single mailings that include letters, ads, samples, foldouts, and other “salespeople with wings” sent to prospects on mailing lists
Direct-response television marketingDirect marketing via television, including direct-response television advertising or infomercials and home shopping channels
Online marketingMarketing conducted through interactive online computer systems, which link consumers with sellers electronically
Commercial online servicesServices that offer online information and marketing services to subscribers who pay a monthly fee
Electronic commerce (e-commerce)The general term for a buying and selling process that is supported by electronic means
Corporate Web siteWeb site that seeks to build customer goodwill and to supplement other sales channels rather than to sell the company’s products directly
Marketing Web siteWeb site designed to engage consumers in an interaction that will move them closer to a purchase or other marketing outcome
Online adsAds that appear while subscribers are surfing online services or Web sites, including banners, pop-up windows, “tickers,” and “roadblocks.”
WebcastingThe automatic downloading of customized information of interest to recipients’ PCs, affording an attractive channel for delivering Internet advertising or other information content
Integrated direct marketingDirect-marketing campaigns that use multiple vehicles and multiple stages to improve response rates and profits
Cost per order (CPO)A measure used in direct marketing to determine the number of orders generated relative to the cost of running the advertisement
Controlled circulation basisDistribution of a publication free to individuals a publisher believes are of importance and responsible for making purchase decisions or are prescreened for qualification on some other basis
ProductAnything and organisation or individual offers for exchange that may satisfy customers’ or consumers’ needs or the marketer’s own needs
Consumer productProduct bought by final consumer for personal consumption
Convenience productsProducts that are widely available, usually inexpensive, and frequently purchased  Consumer product that the customer usually buys frequently, immediately, and with a minimum of comparison and buying effort
Shoping productsGoods and services that consumers shop for, comparing quality, suitability, style, price, and other factors
Specialty productsProducts perceived by consumers as having unique qualities, to the point that no substitutes are acceptable
Unsought productsThose products that consumers do not consciously want or actively seek out
Industrial productsProducts purchased by an organisation for use either in other products or in its own operations
Product levelspotential, augmented, expected generic, core benefit
Core productThe basic good or service purchased, aside from its packaging or accompanying services
Functional attributesThings that a product or service does for consumers
Total quality management (TQM)Programs designed to constantly improve the quality of products, services, and marketing processes
Emergency productsThose products that are usually purchased as the result of urgent needs
StapleGoods which buyers give litle thought when purchasing, other than noting the need for the item and picking it up
Generic productsProducts which are not branded, are simply packed, and usually are priced well below both manufacturer’s and private brands
Augmented productA good, service, or idea enhanced by its accompanying benefits; synthesis of what the seller intends and the buyer perceives
Product qualityThe ability of a product to perform its functions; it includes the product’s overall durability, reliability, precision, ease of operation and repair, and other valued attributes
InnovationA product which is perceived in the marketplace as being innovative
Impulse productsThose products which the consumer buys without having established intention to buy, often feature on racks arranged prominently and enticingly around checkout counters in supermarkets, drugstores, and variety stores
Homogeneous shopping productsProducts among which consumers perceive little difference in the core benefits
Heterogeneous shopping productsProducts that differ from each other on important dimensions, such as style, design, and personal taste, for which such dimensions tend to out weight price in the purchasing decision
Durable goodsThe tangible items that can be expected to survive multiple use
Loss leaders  (or price leaders)Products advertised below the retailer’s costs to increase customer traffic
Implied warrantiesUnwritten warranties that indicate that the product is in good condition and is suitable for the purpose for which it was bought
ServicesActivities, benefits, or satisfactions that are offered to satisfy consumers’ and customers’ needs
Service intangibilityA major characteristic of services—they cannot be seen, tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before they are bought
Service inseparabilityA major characteristic of services—they are produced and consumed at the same time and cannot be separated from their providers, whether the providers are people or machines
Service variabilityA major characteristic of services—their quality may vary greatly, depending on who provides them and when, where, and how
Service perishabilityA major characteristic of services—they cannot be stored for later sale or use
Service-profit chainThe chain that links service firm profits with employee and customer satisfaction
Internal marketingMarketing by a service firm to train and effectively motivate its customer-contact employees and all the supporting service people to work as a team to provide customer satisfaction
Interactive marketingMarketing by a service firm that recognizes that perceived service quality depends heavily on the quality of buyer–seller interaction
ServicingThe maintenance of the product in working order so that its benefits are not diminished
Industrial servicesServices purchased for use in producing the buyer’s products or, more frequently, for use in general operation
Product orientationA philosophy of business which focuses primarily on a firm’s own resources and products
Product lineA grouping of products managed and marketed as a unit because they have similar functions, are distributed in similar ways, or fall within the certain price range. Length, breath, depth and continuum is distinguished.
Product line breathThe number of product lines in the product mix of an organisation
Product line depthThe number of individual items within each product line
Line extensionUsing a successful brand name to introduce additional items in a given product category under the same brand name, such as new flavors, forms, colors, added ingredients, or package sizes
Product classAll the brands of a good and service offered by all competitors to meet a basic consumer need

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