دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۲

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Social marketing / cause marketing بازاریابی اجتماعی

 

The design, implementation, and control of marketing programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas / The idea that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than do competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer’s and society’s well being
Societal marketing orientationرویکرد/گرایش بازاریابی اجتماعیAn approach that adds a consideration to the marketing concept: the impact of a firm‘s activities on societal well-being, the very quality of life
Social marketingبازاریابی اجتماعیThe design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea, cause, or practice among a target group
Modified re-buy خرید مجدد اصلاح شده / ساختار یافتهThe buying situation in which the buying organisation has some familiarity with the product but needs some assistance / it is buying behaviour between a strait re-buy and a new-task purchase
Marketing information systemسیستم اطلاعات مدیریتThe continuously interacting structure of people, machines, and procedures that produces information pertinent to marketing decisions
Marketing intelligence network شبکه هوشمند بازاریابیA set of procedures and sources designed to monitor the organisations‘ external environments, particularly the competitive environment
Marketing mixآمیخته بازاریابی

 آمیزه بازاریابی

The set of controllable tactical marketing tools—product, price, place, and promotion—that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market = Marketing programs including product conception (and development), pricing decisions, promotion of the product, and distribution to consumers
Marketing control کنترل بازاریابیThe process of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and taking corrective action to ensure that marketing objectives are achieved /The process of evaluating of achieved results against established standards, and of taking corrective action to exploit opportunities or solve problems
Peripheral values ارزشهای محیطیValues that reflect, but are not as deeply embedded or as fundamental as, central values
Personal income درآمد شخصیA persons total income from all sources
Marketing orientation رویکرد/گرایش بازاریابیAn approach to business that focuses primarily on what a firm does to satisfy consumer‘s needs
Marketing and manufacturing companyشرکت تولید و بازاریابیA form of subsidiary organisation which handles all functions of a marketing company but also maintains a production facility for the manufacture of the product
Gamesبازی هاPromotional methods that require consumers to take specific actions, such as determining whether the card they received with the product contains a winning number by rubbing it with the edge of a coin, or collecting several cards to produce the winning combination
Creativity خلاقیتA quality possessed by persons that enables them to generate novel approaches, generally reflected in new and improved solutions to problems
Marketing environment بازاریابی محیطیThe actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers
Macroenvironmentمحیط کلانThe larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment¾demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural forces
Microenvironment محیط خردThe forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve customers¾the company, suppliers, marketing channel firms, customer markets, competitors, and publics
Marketing intermediaries واسطه های بازاریابیFirms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers; they include resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing service agencies, and financial intermediaries
Economic environment محیط اقتصادیFactors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns
Engel’s Lawsقوانین انگلDifferences noted over a century ago by Ernst Engel in how people shift their spending across food, housing, transportation, health care, and other goods and services categories as family income rises
Natural environmentمحیط (زیست) طبیعیNatural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities
Technological environment محیط تکنولوژیکForces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities
Political environmentمحیط سیاسیLaws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society
Cultural environmentمحیط فرهنگیInstitutions and other forces that affect society’s basic value perceptions, preferences, and behaviors
Consumer buyer behaviourرفتار خرید مصرف کنندهThe buying behavior of final consumers-individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption
Consumer marketبازار مصرفAll the individuals and house holds who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption
Factors of consumer behavior  عوامل رفتار مصرف کنندهcultural, social, personal, psychological
Factors of customer behavior / 2عوامل رفتار مصرف کنندهenvironment, organisation, interpersonal relations, personal character
Motivationمحرک / انگیزش / انگیزهPersons‘ impulses to take action and the internal and external forces that energies, mobilize, and direct their behavior toward goals
Perception ادراک/ احساس/دریافتselective attention, distortion
Recall یادآوری مجدد/بازخوانیThe process of becoming aware of phenomena, whether internal or external, tangible or intangible / The process by which people select, organize, and interpret, information to form a meaningful picture of the world
Stimulus انگیزه / محرکAnything that elicits or accelerates a physiological or psychological activity
Environmental stimuliمحرک های محیطی economical, technological, political, cultural
Stimulus-response theoryنظریه محرک-پاسخThe theory which holds that organisms learn first to associate an original stimulus with another, adjacent stimulus and than to respond to that second „conditioned“ stimulus with the behaviour formerly induced by the original stimulus
Special incentivesمشوق های ویژهA motivator usually used for a brief period to strengthen representatives‘ efforts to achieve specific sales goals
Factors supporting purchase عوامل پشتیبان خرید choice of product, brand, supplier, timing, and size
Buying centreتاثیرگذاران بر خریدThe collective term for people who participate in purchase decisions
Cues علت / دلیل / سببThe minor stimuli that shape people‘s responses and that support the original stimulus
High involvement decisionsتصمیم گیری با سطح درگیری ذهنی بالاDecisions that generally involve a large sum of money, have personal relevance, demand a search for information, and produce some degree of anxiety about the correctness of the product chosen
Low involvement decisions تصمیم گیری با سطح درگیری ذهنی پایینDecisions generally made in an instant with little or no influence from social or cultural forces
Consumer behaviour رفتار مصرف کنندهThe acts of individuals that involve buying and using products, including the decision processes that precede and determine these acts
Culture فرهنگAll the things, abilities and believe/everything that one generation of a society transmits to the next
Subcultures خرده فرهنگ هاGroups that share the values and artifacts of the larger society but also have distinctive practices, preferences, and beliefs
Counterculturesخرده فرهنگ های متضادSubcultures whose values are in conflict with those of the wider society
Opinion leaderرهبر افکارPerson within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts influence on others
Social class طبقه اجتماعی / کلاس اجتماعیA category made up of people who share similar opportunities, economic positions, lifestyles, attitudes and behaviors
Group گروهTwo or more people, with related statuses and roles, who interact on the basis of shared expectations about each other‘s behavior
Ethnic groupگروه اخلاقیThe social group determined by culturally transmitted, learned traits
Demographyجمعیت شناختیThe study of the changing characteristics of human populations-factors such as vital statistics, growth, size, density, and distribution
Personality شخصیتA person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her own environment
Motive (drive)انگیزهA need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need
InnovatorsنوآورانThe first users of the new product
Early adopters پذیرندگان اولیهPeople who try a new product early in its life cycle without waiting for its acceptance by a large number of people
Early majorityگروه پذیرندگان اولیهPeople who adopt the product only after it has been accepted somewhat widely
Late majority گروه پذیرندگان متاخرPeople who do not adopt an innovation until it is widespread use and is thoroughly accepted
Laggardsعقب افتادگان / متخرینIndividuals, households, or organisations that resists or never adopt the new product
Family household خانوادهA household consisting of two or more persons living together who are related by marriage or birth
Family life cycleچرخه زندگی خانوادگیVarious stages in family life, each with its own characteristics
Family orientationرویکرد/ گرایش خانوادگیThe family into which an individual is born; the family that dares for and socialises us as children and gives us our initial class status
Family procreationتولید/زایش/فرآوری خانوادگیThe new family established by choosing a mate and rearing children
Ideal self-concept  غرور / خویش پندار / عزت نفس ایده آلA view of ourselves as we would like to be
Lifestylesسبک زندگیPreferred patterns of living as expressed in a person‘s activities, interests, and opinions, taken as a whole
Learning یادگیریThe relatively permanent changes in thought and behaviour that result from experience = Changes in an individual’s behaviour arising from experience
Beliefباور / اعتقادA descriptive thought that a person holds about something
Attitude نحوه نگرش / طرز برخورد /گرایشA person’s consistently favourable or unfavourable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea
Complex buying behavior رفتار پیچیده خریدConsumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior رفتار خرید کاهشی-ناهنجارConsumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by high involvement but few perceived differences among brands
Habitual buying behavior رفتار خرید پایدار / عادتیConsumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by low consumer involvement and few significant perceived brand differences.
Variety-seeking buying behaviorرفتار خرید تنوع طلبیConsumer buying behaviour in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences
Need recognitionتشخیص نیازThe first stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need
Information searchجستجوی اطلاعاتThe stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer is aroused to search for more information; the consumer may simply have heightened attention or may go into active information search
Alternative evaluationسنجش / ارزیابی جایگزینThe stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set
Purchase decision تصمیم خریدThe stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer actually buys the product
Postpurchase behaviourرفتار پیش از خریدThe stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers take further action after purchase based their satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Cognitive dissonanceناهنجاری شناختیBuyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict
New product محصول جدیدA good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new
Adoption process فرایند پذیرشThe mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption
Organisational markets / Business marketبازارهای سازمانی / بازار تجاریMarkets which include businesses, institutions, and governments that buy products or raw materials for their own use or to make other products that they, in turn, sell /  All organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others
Organisational marketingبازاریابی سازمانیAll marketing efforts directed at buyers for formal institutions, including industrial, service, reseller, government, and not-for-profit groups
Business buying process فرانید خرید سازمانیThe decision-making process by which business buyers establish the need for purchased products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers
Derived demandتقاضا مشتق شده / تقاضای ناشی شدهBusiness demand that ultimately comes from (derives from) the demand for consumer goods
Straight rebuy خرید مجدد مستقیمA business buying situation in which the buyer routinely reorders something without any modifications
Modified rebuy خرید مجدد اصلاح شدهA business buying situation in which the buyer wants to modify product specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers
New task وظیفه جدیدA business buying situation in which the buyer purchases a product or service for the first time
Packagingبسته بندی در مقیاس بزرگThe activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product
Systems buyingسیستم های خریدBuying a packaged solution to a problem from a single seller
UsersکاربرهاMembers of the organization who will use the product or service; users often initiate the buying proposal and help define product specifications
Influencersموثرین /  اثرگذارانPeople in an organization’s buying center who affect the buying decision; they often help define specifications and also provide information for evaluating alternatives
Deciders تصمیم گیرندگانPeople in the organization’s buying center who have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers
Gatekeepersحافظان سازمانیPeople in the organization’s buying center who control the flow of information to others
Problem recognition تشخیص مسئله / مشکلThe first stage of the business buying process in which someone in the company recognizes a problem or need that can be met by acquiring a good or service
General need descriptionشرح نیاز عمومیThe stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Product specificationمشخصه محصولThe stage of the business buying process in which the buying organization decides on and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item
Value analysis ارزیابی / تجزیه و تحلیل ارزشAn approach to cost reduction in which components are studied carefully to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made by less costly methods of production
Supplier searchجستجوی عرضه کنندهThe stage of the business buying process in which the buyer tries to find the best vendors

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