دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه 8

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Odd-even pricing قیمتگذاری غیرمعمولThe practice which assumes that consumers will perceive prices such as $40.95 as being “$40 and something” rather than as “almost $50”.
Cost-plus pricing قیمتگذاری افزون بر هزینه، قیمت‌گذاری بالاتر از هزینه، روش قیمت اضافه بر بهای اصلA strategy that assumes a basic cost per unit and then adds a markup to provide a margin that covers overhead costs and returns a profit
Cost/volume/profit analysis هزینه / حجم / تجزیه و تحلیل سودAn approach which calculates the effect on profits of different prices, given different levels of demand in response to those prices
Price-off promotions ترفیع فروش با کاهش قیمتA strategy that involves temporary price reductions to retailers with the intent that savings will be passed along to consumers
Non-price competition رقابت غیر قیمتیWhen firm’s strategy is advanced by components of the marketing mix other than price: the product itself, the distribution system, or the promotional campaign
Push money پول فشار – پرداخت به واسطSpecial bonuses paid by a marketer to an intermediary’s sales force
Quantity discounts تخفیفات مقداریPrice concessions that are based either on number of units purchased or on the total dollar amount; they are used to encourage larger orders from a single buyer
Rebates تخفیفات بعد از فروشA promotional method which provides for financial returns to buyers from the manufacturer after the purchase has taken place
Cash refund offer (rebate) بازپرداخت نقدی ارائه شده پس از خریدOffer to refund part of the purchase price of a product to consumers who send a “proof of purchase” to the manufacturer
Price pack (cents-off deal) کاهش قیمت مندرج بر لیبلReduced price that is marked by the producer directly on the label or package
Self-liquidator پرداخت کوچک در ازای بهترین کالا یا خدماتThe consumer must pay a small charge for the premium to help cover the marketer’’ expenses; if this charge completely covers a marketer’’ costs, the premium is called a self-liquidator
Distribution channel کانال توزیعA set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user
Channel level سطوح کانالA layer of intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer
Direct marketing channel کانال بازاریابی مستقیمA marketing channel that has no intermediary levels
Indirect marketing channel کانال بازاریابی غیرمستقیمChannel containing one or more intermediary levels
Channel conflict تعارض کانالDisagreement among marketing channel members on goals and roles—who should do what and for what rewards
Conventional distribution channel کانال توزیع متعارفA channel consisting of one or more independent producers, wholesalers, and retailers, each a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits even at the expense of profits for the system as a whole
Vertical marketing system (VMS) سیستم بازاریابی عمودیA distribution channel structure in which producers, wholesales, and retailers act as a unified system. One channel member owns the others, has contracts with them, or has so much power that they all cooperate
Corporate VMSسیستم بازاریابی عمودی ترکیبی با مالکیت مشترکA vertical marketing system that combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership—channel leadership is established through common ownership
Administered VMS سیستم بازاریابی عمودی ترکیبی با مدیریت واحدA vertical marketing system that coordinates successive stages of production and distribution, not through common ownership or contractual ties but through the size and power of one of the parties
Horizontal marketing system سیستم بازاریابی افقیA channel arrangement in which two or more companies at one level join together to follow a new marketing opportunity
Hybrid marketing channel کانال بازاریابی ترکیبیMulti-channel distribution system in which a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments
Disintermediation حذف واسطThe elimination of a layer of intermediaries from a marketing channel or the displacement of traditional resellers by radically new types of intermediaries
Intensive distribution توزیع فشردهStocking the product in as many outlets as possible
Exclusive distribution توزیع انحصاریGiving a limited number of dealers the exclusive right to distribute the company’s products in their territories
Selective distribution توزیع انتخابیThe use of more than one, but fewer than all, of the intermediaries who are willing to carry the company’s products
Intermodal transportation حمل و نقل چند وجهیCombining two or more modes of transportation
Integrated logistics management مدیریت تدارکات/پشتیبانی یکپارچهThe logistics concept that emphasizes teamwork, both inside the company and among all the marketing channel organizations, to maximize the performance of the entire distribution system
Third-party logistics provider ارائه دهنده خدمات پشتیانی توسط طرف سومAn independent logistics provider that performs any or all of the functions required to get their clients’ product to market
Transit time زمان انتقال / ارسالThe time from receipt of the order to delivery of the goods
Combined transportation modes حالت حمل و نقل ترکیبیA transportation method which utilities more than one type of carrier
Vertical conflict تعارض عمودیThe conflict which occurs between members above and below each other in the distribution channel-between the manufacturer and intermediaries, or between intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers
Horizontal conflict تعارض افقیThe conflict which arises between wholesalers and retailers of the same level and type in a channel
Intertype conflict تعارض درون شبکه توزیعThe conflict which occurs when different kinds of intermediaries are part of the distribution channel
Conflict resolution حل تعارضAccommodation of various channel members to decisions designed to promote the overall goals of the distribution channel
Horizontal integration ادغام افقیThe process which brings together a number of channel members at the same level and puts them under single ownership
Place utility کاربرد/ فایده مکانیThe usefulness gained when something of value is received where it is wanted
Retailing خرده فروشیAll activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal, non-business use
Specialty store فروشگاه تخصصیA retail store that carries a narrow product line with a deep assortment within that line
Supplies تدارکاتItems that are not incorporated into the buying organisation’s products;goods needed to keep everyday operations going
Supply عرضهA relation showing the various amounts of a commodity that a seller would be willing and able to make available for sale at possible alternative prices during a given period of time, all other things remaining the same
Distribution channels کانال های توزیعChannels that are made up of manufacturers or service producers and wholesalers and retailers through which products are marketed to consumers and organisational buyers
Channel length طول کانالThe number of levels in a distribution channel
Channel strategy استراتژی کانالDecisions which center on choosing and attracting the most effective types and the most efficient number of distributors in the best geographical locations
Channel width عرض کانالThe number of intermediaries found at the same level in the channel

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