دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۹

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Direct channels کانال های مستقیمThe channels in which producers sell directly to final buyers; no intermediaries are involved
Multiple channels کانال های چندگانهChannels which include different kinds of intermediaries at the same level
Voluntary chains زنجیره داوطلبانهWholesaler-sponsored organisations of independent retailers who practice bulk buying and similar merchandising techniques
Procurement costs هزینه های خریدInventory expenses that arise from the ordering process itself
Selective demand تقاضای انتخابیA preference among buyers for specific brands
Selective distribution توزیع انتخابیA systém in which only a certain number of intermediaries, or those of o certain type, are chosen to distribute the product
Position جایگاهA product’s category and its relative standing within that category
Category development index (CDI) شاخص توسعه طبقه/ردهAn index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a product category’s total sales that occur in a given market area as compared to the percentage of the total population on the market
Category management مدیریت طبقه‌بندیAn organisational system whereby managers have responsibility for the marketing programs for a particular category or line of products
Product category organisation سازمان طبقه‌بندی محصولThe organisation method that assigns marketing tasks by product category or brand
Slotting fees بهای فضای قفسهPayments demanded by retailers before they will accept new products and find “slots” for them on the shelves
City zone منطقه شهریA category used for newspaper circulation figures that refers to a market area composed of the city where paper is published and contiguous areas similar in character to the city
Product line exclusivity خط تولید انحصاریAn agreement that the agency will not work on a competing product for the duration of the relationship
Polarity retailing خرده فروشی دو قطبیThe concept stating that the successful forms of retailing is at the extremes; either the large mass merchandisers with highly efficient operations, or the very small “boutique” retailers with a very deep line of merchandise in a very limited product line
Multilevel Merchandiser تجارت (بازارپردازی) چندوجهیThose corporate retail chains which, by dint of size, have integrated backward and have achieved strong control over (if not ownership of) their wholesalers as well as their manufacturers
Cease and desist order توقف و لغو سفارشAn action by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission that orders a company to stop engaging in a practice that is considered deceptive or misleading until a hearing is held
Corrective Advertising تبلیغ اصلاحیAn action by Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser can be required to run advertising messages designed to remedy the deception or misleading impression created by its pprevious advertising
Reseller marketsبازارهای فروش مجدد محصولات از طریق نمایندگان فروشFirms that acquire goods and services in order to sell them again
Special sales representativesنمایندگان فروش ویژهPeople who promote the product directly to those who purchase it, to intermediaries, or to those who recommend it, but who do not actually take orders
Retailers خرده فروشانMerchants whose main business is selling directly to ultimate consumers
Wheel of retailing concept چرخه مفهوم خرده فروشیA concept of retailing that states that new types of retailers usually begin as low-margin, low-price, low-status operations but later evolve into higher-priced, higher-service operations, eventually becoming like the conventional retailers they replaced
Retailer co-operatives همکاری در خرده فروشیCentralized buying organisations set up by retailers themselves
Convenience stores فروشگاههای رفاه ۲۴ ساعتهStores featuring convenience: long store hours (often 24 hours each day), ease of access, and quick shopping for items such as bread, milk, eggs, cigarettes, and newspapers
Off-price retailers پایینتر از قیمت خرده فروشیStores that differ from other discounters in that they feature, almost exclusively, name-brand and designer label apparel at prices significantly below those in department and specialty stores
Straight commission کمیسیون مستقیمA financial incentive based solely on sales results; each increment of sales increases the commission
Scrambled merchandising فروش اجناس ناجور / نامرتبطThe contemporary practice among retailers of expanding their product lines beyond those traditionally carried, leading to competition between types of retailers
Supermarkets سوپرمارکتSelf-selection stores that sell a complete range of food and other items from various departments
Superstores فروشگاه بزرگStores that go well beyond combination stores by carrying such nonfood items as garden supplies, alcoholic beverages, books, housewares, and hardware
Urban shopping malls مرکز خرید بزرگ شهریCollections of shops and department stores located in or near central business districts
Shopping center مرکز خریدA group of commercial establishments planned, developed, owned, and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade area that it services, and providing on-site parking in definite relationships to the types and sizes of stores it contains
Full-service retailers خرده فروشان با سرویس کاملSpecialty shops, boutiques, and top-of-the-line department stores
Department stores فروشگاه خیلی بزرگ و بسیار متنوعStores characterized by wide and deep product mixes; individual departments within store; mid- to upper-level prices; and extensive services
Discount houses  فروشگاه خیلی بزرگ با قیمتها نازلStores that are much like department stores except that their primary appeal is low price
Discount store فروشگاه تخفیفیA retail institution that sells standard merchandise at lower prices by accepting lower margins and selling at higher volume
Hypermarket هایپر مارکتA very large store (80.000 square feet and up) that adds furniture, appliances, and clothing to the items found in superstores
Specialty stores فروشگاه تخصصیStores characterized by narrow product mixes with deep product lines, a high level of personal services, and relatively high prices
Category killer فروشگاه تخصصی تخفیفیGiant specialty store that carries a very deep assortment of a particular line and is staffed by knowledgeable employees
Convenience store فروشگاه رفاه کوچک۲۴ ساعتA small store, located near a residential area, that is open long hours seven days a week and carries a limited line of high-turnover convenience goods
Combination store فروشگاه ترکیبیStore that carry over-the-counter and prescription drugs in addition to food items
Self-selection retailers خرده فروشان خود انتخابStores that provide few services or sales personnel and sell mostly staples and homogeneous shopping goods

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