دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۶

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Marketing research تحقیقات بازار / مطالعات بازار The systematic and objective research for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing
Marketing plan برنامه بازاریابی A written document that contains the firm’s marketing strategy and tactics
Product life cycle چرخه عمر محصول The product‘s stages of development, which consist of introductory, growth, maturity and decline stage
Demand curve  منحنی تقاضا A curve that specifies the quantities demanded at various prices at a given time
Experience curve منحنی تجربه A curve reflecting the fact that the costs of doing something tend to decrease as the organisation gains experience doing it
Fad  مد زودگذر A cycle that is different from fashion only in the length of time, which is relatively short
Fashion مد A cycle usually starting with a designer‘s need to be different, and his or her sense that the new design will be acceptable to at least a segment of the market
Life cycle extension گسترش چرخه عمر The process of finding new uses for the same product by the same users
Market modification  اصلاح بازار turning non-users to users, entry on new segments, reaching customers of competitors, more frequent and heavier use of product
Product modification  اصلاح محصول improvement quality, features and style of product
Mix modification  اصلاح مخلوط special and volume discounts, credit accessibility, broadening assortment, more outlets, channels, advertising costs, change of message, media, timing, rebates, gifts, display, territories, delivery speed, and servicing
Introductory stage مرحله مقدماتی A stage in a product‘s life in which an innovation is alone in the market
Growth stage مرحله رشد A stage in a product‘s life in which sales and profits grow rapidly, competitors are attracted to the growing market, and cash flow can still be negative because of firm‘s efforts to establish a strong market share ahead of competitors. The market is usually turbulent in this period
Maturity stage  مرحله بلوغ A stage in which sales growth slows, the market becomes saturated, and profits are high but begin to decline as market leaders cut prices in order to gain share
Decline stage مرحله افول A stage in which total demand decreases, leading to a further dropout of competitors until only a few remain
Alternatives of introductory pricing  جایگزین های قیمت گذاری مقدماتی slow, and rapid penetration, eventually skimming
Concept testing  آزمون مفهوم A process involving the accumulation and evaluation of consumers‘ reactions to a new product idea before the product is actually developed
Market share analysis ارزیابی سهم بازار An evaluation of the firm‘s performance in comparison to that of its competitors
Relative market share  سهم نسبی بازار A firm‘s market share divided by the market share of its largest competitor
Secular trends روندهای سکولار The raising or falling patterns of sales over a period of years
Seasonal patterns الگوهای فصلی The consistent sales patterns within a year which are based on factors such as weather or holidays
Growth-share matrix ماتریس سهم-رشد A matrix that explains how market share, market growth, and cash flows are related
Marketing implementation  پیاده سازی بازاریابی The process that turns marketing strategies and plans into marketing actions in order to accomplish strategic marketing objectives
Marketing audit  حسابرسی بازاریابی A comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company’s environment, objectives, strategies, and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities and to recommend a plan of action to improve the company’s marketing performance
Barrier to entry مانع ورود Conditions that make difficult for a firm to enter the market in a particular industry, such as high advertising budgets
Price  قیمت Both the value that buyers place on what is exchanged and the marketers’ estimates of that value
Target costing  هزینه‌یابی هدف Pricing that starts with an ideal selling price, then targets costs that will ensure that the price is met
Fixed costs  هزینه‌های ثابت Costs that do not vary with production or sales level
Variable costs هزینه‌های متغیر Costs that vary directly with the level of production
Total costs  هزینه‌های ثابت The sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production
Experience curve (learning curve)  منحنی یادگیری The drop in the average per-unit production cost that comes with accumulated production experience
Demand curve  منحنی تقاضا A curve that shows the number of units the market will buy in a given time period at different prices that might be charged
Price elasticity کشش قیمت A measure of the sensitivity of demand to changes in price
Total costs approach هزینه کل توزیع An overall examination of the costs involved in moving finished goods from the end of the production line into customers’ hands
Break-even pricing (target profit pricing)  قیمت نقطه سربرسر

قیمتگذاری برای تولید سود

Setting price to break even on the costs of making and marketing a product; or setting price to make a target profit
Value-based pricing قیمتگذاری بر اساس ارزش درک شده مشتری Setting price based on buyers’ perceptions of value rather than on the seller’s cost
Value pricing قیمتگذاری بر اساس قیمت تمام شده و خدمات ارائه شده Offering just the right combination of quality and good service at a fair price
Competition-based pricing قیمتگذاری رقابتی Setting prices based on the prices that competitors charge for similar products
Equilibrium (market) price قیمت تعادلی The price at the point where supply equals demand
Basic price قیمت پایه  The amount marketers estimate consumers will pay for the core product
List price لیست قیمت The amount at which a product is priced for final buyers, whether individual consumers or organisation

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