دیکشنری مدیریت بازاریابی – صفحه ۶

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Marketing researchتحقیقات بازار / مطالعات بازارThe systematic and objective research for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing
Marketing planبرنامه بازاریابیA written document that contains the firm’s marketing strategy and tactics
Product life cycleچرخه عمر محصولThe product‘s stages of development, which consist of introductory, growth, maturity and decline stage
Demand curve منحنی تقاضاA curve that specifies the quantities demanded at various prices at a given time
Experience curveمنحنی تجربهA curve reflecting the fact that the costs of doing something tend to decrease as the organisation gains experience doing it
Fad مد زودگذرA cycle that is different from fashion only in the length of time, which is relatively short
FashionمدA cycle usually starting with a designer‘s need to be different, and his or her sense that the new design will be acceptable to at least a segment of the market
Life cycle extensionگسترش چرخه عمرThe process of finding new uses for the same product by the same users
Market modification اصلاح بازارturning non-users to users, entry on new segments, reaching customers of competitors, more frequent and heavier use of product
Product modification اصلاح محصولimprovement quality, features and style of product
Mix modification اصلاح مخلوطspecial and volume discounts, credit accessibility, broadening assortment, more outlets, channels, advertising costs, change of message, media, timing, rebates, gifts, display, territories, delivery speed, and servicing
Introductory stageمرحله مقدماتیA stage in a product‘s life in which an innovation is alone in the market
Growth stageمرحله رشدA stage in a product‘s life in which sales and profits grow rapidly, competitors are attracted to the growing market, and cash flow can still be negative because of firm‘s efforts to establish a strong market share ahead of competitors. The market is usually turbulent in this period
Maturity stage مرحله بلوغA stage in which sales growth slows, the market becomes saturated, and profits are high but begin to decline as market leaders cut prices in order to gain share
Decline stageمرحله افولA stage in which total demand decreases, leading to a further dropout of competitors until only a few remain
Alternatives of introductory pricing جایگزین های قیمت گذاری مقدماتیslow, and rapid penetration, eventually skimming
Concept testing آزمون مفهومA process involving the accumulation and evaluation of consumers‘ reactions to a new product idea before the product is actually developed
Market share analysisارزیابی سهم بازارAn evaluation of the firm‘s performance in comparison to that of its competitors
Relative market share سهم نسبی بازارA firm‘s market share divided by the market share of its largest competitor
Secular trendsروندهای سکولارThe raising or falling patterns of sales over a period of years
Seasonal patternsالگوهای فصلیThe consistent sales patterns within a year which are based on factors such as weather or holidays
Growth-share matrixماتریس سهم-رشدA matrix that explains how market share, market growth, and cash flows are related
Marketing implementation پیاده سازی بازاریابیThe process that turns marketing strategies and plans into marketing actions in order to accomplish strategic marketing objectives
Marketing audit حسابرسی بازاریابیA comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company’s environment, objectives, strategies, and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities and to recommend a plan of action to improve the company’s marketing performance
Barrier to entryمانع ورودConditions that make difficult for a firm to enter the market in a particular industry, such as high advertising budgets
Price قیمتBoth the value that buyers place on what is exchanged and the marketers’ estimates of that value
Target costing هزینه‌یابی هدفPricing that starts with an ideal selling price, then targets costs that will ensure that the price is met
Fixed costs هزینه‌های ثابتCosts that do not vary with production or sales level
Variable costsهزینه‌های متغیرCosts that vary directly with the level of production
Total costs هزینه‌های ثابتThe sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production
Experience curve (learning curve) منحنی یادگیریThe drop in the average per-unit production cost that comes with accumulated production experience
Demand curve منحنی تقاضاA curve that shows the number of units the market will buy in a given time period at different prices that might be charged
Price elasticityکشش قیمتA measure of the sensitivity of demand to changes in price
Total costs approachهزینه کل توزیعAn overall examination of the costs involved in moving finished goods from the end of the production line into customers’ hands
Break-even pricing (target profit pricing) قیمت نقطه سربرسر

قیمتگذاری برای تولید سود

Setting price to break even on the costs of making and marketing a product; or setting price to make a target profit
Value-based pricingقیمتگذاری بر اساس ارزش درک شده مشتریSetting price based on buyers’ perceptions of value rather than on the seller’s cost
Value pricingقیمتگذاری بر اساس قیمت تمام شده و خدمات ارائه شدهOffering just the right combination of quality and good service at a fair price
Competition-based pricingقیمتگذاری رقابتیSetting prices based on the prices that competitors charge for similar products
Equilibrium (market) priceقیمت تعادلیThe price at the point where supply equals demand
Basic priceقیمت پایه The amount marketers estimate consumers will pay for the core product
List priceلیست قیمتThe amount at which a product is priced for final buyers, whether individual consumers or organisation

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